IMPACT OF INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS IN GEOGRAPHY AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effects of instructional resources on students? achievement in Geography. This study became necessary because of the unavailability of instructional resources for teaching geography in the secondary schools. The study employed a quasi experimental design, specifically the pretest ? posttest non equivalent group design. One hundred and forty SSI students from potiskum Education Zone from 2 schools randomly drawn from public primary schools in Potiskum education zone of Yobe State formed sample of the study. Three experts validated the instrument Geography Achievement Test (GAT). Five research questions were answered and five hypotheses were tested. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and ANCOVA. The results revealed that students taught using instructional resources performed better than students taught using conventional material; male students did not perform better than their female counterparts in Geography; rural students performed better than urban students in geography; The results do not suggest ordinal interaction effect between mode of method and gender on students? achievement in geography. This was because at all the levels of gender, the mean scores were higher for student?s improvised instructional resource; the result suggests ordinal interaction effects between modes of method and location on students? achievement in Geography; this was because at all the levels of location, the mean scores were higher for student?s improvised instructional resource compared to conventional materials with lower mean scores; there was significant difference in the mean score of students taught using students improvised instructional resource and those taught using conventional instructional resources; there was no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students in geography; there was significant difference in the mean achievement scores of urban and rural students in geography; The interaction effect of method and gender on students mean achievement scores in Geography was, not statistically significant. The interaction effect of method and location on students? mean achievement scores in Geography was, not statistically significant. Based on the findings and implications, it was recommended that teaching of Geography in secondary school should be conducted in a manner that students will effectively understand and learn the concept taught. It was suggested that further research could be carried out on this topic using true experimental research.

TABLE OF CONTENT
ABSTRACTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Instructional resources
Teaching of Instructional resources
Geography as a teaching Subject
Concept of Gender
Concept of School Location
Concept of Achievement
Theoretical Framework
Theory of Cognitive Development by Jean Piaget (1973)
Theory of Instruction by Jerome Bruner (1966)
Empirical Studies
Instructional resources and Learning Outcomes/Achievement
Gender Differences and Learning Outcomes/Achievement
School Location and Learning Outcomes/Achievement
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Training of teachers
Experimental Procedure
Control of Extraneous Variables
Method of Data Analyses

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION,CONCLUSION,IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusions
Recommendations
Limitation of the Study
Suggestions for Further Research
Summary of the Study
REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Science is the bedrock on which modern day technological breakthrough is hinged. Different authors according to their own understanding have defined Science. Igwe (2003) defined science as a systematic study of the nature of the behaviour of the material and physical universe through observation, experimentation, measurement and recording. In addition, Esu (2004) defined science as a systematic, precise, objective way to study the natural world. Science is often an exciting and satisfying enterprise that requires creativity, skill and insight based on this Fape (2007) defined science as rationally structured knowledge about nature, which embraces systematic methods of positive attitudes for its acquisition, teaching, learning and application.
The major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate individuals that are concerned with high competence for rational thoughts and actions. The objectives of science education in this country according to Maduekwe (2006) include the need to prepare students to observe and explore the environment, explain simple natural phenomena, develop scientific attitudes including curiosity, critical reflection and objectivity, apply the skills and knowledge gained through science to solve everyday problems in the environment, develop self-confidence and self-reliance through problem solving activities in science.
In recent times, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning Scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on Science. According to Ogunleye (2006), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the application of science, it would have been difficult for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Geography.
Geography is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools, (FRN, 2004). Geography is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc. In contemporary Nigeria, greater emphasis is placed on science and technological development. As a result, students are being encouraged to take up science-related subjects. Today, Geography pervades literally every field of human endeavour, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. This is seen in all the technological advancement in the world today, which is because of scientific investigations. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject.
Studies have shown that secondary school students are exhibiting low interest in Geography (Esiobu, 2005). This low interest of students in geography has been traced to poor achievement in examinations. In our match towards scientific and technological advancement, we need nothing short of good achievement in geography at all levels of schooling. Unfortunately, achievement of students in geography at the end of the secondary school has not improved in the last decade (Umoinyang, 1999). Folorunso (2004) has linked poor achievement trend in geography particularly to the lack of instructional resources in schools due to poor funding of schools. The poor funding of schools has hindered the principals from providing the teachers with adequate instructional resources.The National Policy on Education (FME, 2004) emphasizes the need for teaching and learning of science processes and principles. The policy recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods of teaching. In this regards, Okebukola (2004) stated that the basic tools that science uses in the learning of science processes are the instructional resources.
Studies have shown that the use of instructional resources have improved achievement (George, 2008) and Nwagbo (2006). Instructional resources are wide varieties of equipment and materials use for teaching and learning by teachers to stimulate self-activity on the part of the students. The teaching of Geography without instructional resources may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Poor academic achievement in Geography could also be attributed to many factors such as, low interest of students in geography, inadequate motivation from teacher, poor incentives to geography teachers, lack of adequate supply of instructional resource, lack of qualified teachers, and use of teacher centered instructional strategies, inadequate use of instructional resources and use of abstract standardized materials. Among these factors, teacher?s use of abstract standardized instructional strategy is considered as an important factor in this study.
This implies that the mastery of Geography concepts might not be fully achieved without the use of instructional resources that the students are abreast with. The teaching of Geography without instructional resources may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Folorunso (2004) observed that there is lack of adequate and appropriate instructional resources for effective teaching of Geography in schools. For Ibitoye and Fape (2007), the poor achievement in geography was traced to poor usage of instructional resources for geography teaching and learning, poor state of infrastructure facilities, large class size, poor teaching, use of faulty assessment practice, and inadequacy of quality teachers. According to Okebukola (2004), the poor state of laboratory facilities and inadequate use of instructional resources has constituted a cog in the wheel of students? achievement in Geography in the Senior School Examination. The verbal exposition does not promote skill acquisition, objectivity, and critical thinking abilities that will enable the child to function effectively in the society. This according to the researcher leads to poor achievement of students in the subject. Okebukola and Jegede (1986) stressed that a professionally qualified Geography teacher no matter how well trained, would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and material resources necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
The report of West African Examination Council (WAEC) on the Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) (2011) on student enrolment and performance in Nigeria by subject, grade, and sex revealed low enrolment of girls for science subjects as well as low academic achievement in geography and other science subjects and the persistent poor achievement of students in geography.

Statement of the Problem
With the popularity of Geography among science inclined students in secondary schools in Potiskum education zone, One would expect high performance of students in the subject area. However, it is surprising to note that students’ performance in the subject is not encouraging. Available WASSCE summary result from Potiskum education zone shows evidence of poor performance of students in Geography in the zone .
Studies have shown that appropriate selection and use of instructional resources during instruction enhance students’ learning. Teachers of Geography are expected to ensure proper selection and use of these instructional resources. However, it has been observed that these instructional resources are no longer supplied to schools. It becomes imperative that the instructional resources be improvised. Conventionally, teachers are expected to improvise instructional resources; but the new thinking is that both teachers and students are to engage in teaching of instructional resources. Therefore, two modes of teaching- teachers’ mode and students’ mode are involved in this study. Studies have been done to compare the effect of the use of  teacher-instructional resources and the use of standard materials or use of no materials during instruction on students’ achievement. However, no study to the best knowledge of the researcher has examined the effect of the two modes of teachingof  instructional  materials, on secondary school students’ achievement in geography.
Therefore, the problem of the study becomes: what are the effects of mode of teaching (teacher and student instructional resources), gender and school location on secondary school students’ achievement in Geography?     

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of two modes of teachingof  instructional  materials on students’ achievement in Geography in secondary schools in Potiskum Education Zone. 
Specifically, the study intends to find out the;
a)            Effect  of teacher and student instructional resources on the achievement of students in geography.
b)           influence of gender on students’ achievement in geography.
c)            influence of school location on the achievement of students in geography. 
d)           interaction effect of mode of teaching and gender on students’ achievement in Geography.
e)            interaction effect of mode of teaching and school location on students achievement in geography.

Significance of Study
The findings of the study could be of immense help to the teachers and school authorities. The school authorities could based on how effective the two modes of teaching are in enhancing learning, which mode was more effective, mount workshops for teachers and students on teaching of instructional resources. Through these workshops, the teachers acquire more skills in teaching and experience discovery learning through exploration of the environment during teaching.
The findings of this study could also assist curriculum planners. This is because the findings could guide them in curriculum development, instructional design, implementation and evaluation. It could guide them in integrating the instructional resources topic by topic in curriculum and instructional design.
Textbook authors/publishers are also hopefully going to benefit from the findings of this study. This is because the publications of the findings of the  study could supply them with relevant information that would help in enriching their textbooks by integrating the appropriate modes of teaching in them.
The findings of the study could also be of immense help to the students as it would encourage students to develop instructional resources that would enhance teaching and learning. This would equally encourage students to explore their own environment thereby gaining more knowledge through discovery. This boosts students’ learning ability and as such enhances their academic performance.

Scope of the Study
This comparative study was carried out in Potiskum education Zone of Yobe State, Nigeria. It compared the effect of teacher and student instructional resources on secondary school students’ achievement in Geography in Potiskum education zone of Yobe State, Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study.
a)            What are the mean achievement scores of students exposed to teacher and student instructional resources?
b)           What is the influence of gender on mean achievement scores of students in Geography?
c)            What is the influence of school location on mean achievement scores of students in Geography?
d)           What is the interaction effect of mode of teaching and gender of students on the mean achievement scores of students in Geography?
e)            What is the interaction effect of mode of teaching and location of school on the mean achievement scores in Geography?

Hypotheses
These null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
Ho1      There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught with teacher instructional resources and those taught with student- instructional resources.
Ho2        There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students in Geography due to gender.
Ho3        There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students in Geography due to school location.
Ho4        There is no significant interaction effect of the mode of teaching and gender on the mean achievement scores of students in Geography.

Ho5        There is no significant interaction effect of the mode of teaching and school location on mean achievement scores of the students in Geography. 

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 63 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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