Cleaned Bambara groundnut seeds were divided into four lots. Each lot was separately pretreated thus: germinated, roasted, germinated and roasted, and unprocessed which served as control. Each sample was ground, sieved, and extruded using single screw extruder. Consumer preference test was done by a taste panel of 50 people who rated the products on the attributes of colour, taste, flavour and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. The treatment (roasting) given on the most preferred product was adopted in producing composite of bambara and “acha” flour, which was mixed with graded levels of carrot and other ingredients, and extruded. The product samples were subjected to analyses for chemical composition, residual anti-nutrients, physico-chemical and sensory properties using standard methods. The samples were stored for six months under ambient conditions (28±2ºC) and analysed at 2 months interval for moisture, texture, provitamin A (β-carotene) and sensory properties. Extruded snacks from the composite of bambara groundnut, hungry rice and carrot had high protein (15-16%), β-carotene (180-550.13mg/100g retinol) and minerals (iron and zinc) contents. Inclusion of carrot to the composite increased (p≤0.05) the β-carotene content of the product, when compared with the control. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the sensory qualities of the control and products with 5% to 15% carrot. Extrusion cooking significantly (p<0 .05="" 0.06-0.09mg="" 0.16mg-0.26="" 36.75-30.58mg="" 4.01-6.50hu="" 6.81-8.32mg="" 91.01-81.11mg="" about="" activities="" also="" and="" brought="" carotene="" components.="" concentration="" content="" cooking="" digestibility="" extrusion="" from="" g.="" g="" haemagglutinin="" improved="" inhibitor="" it="" levels.="" mg="" minerals="" moisture="" not="" of="" other="" p="" phytate="" protein="" proximate="" reduced="" respectively="" significantly="" snacks.="" tannin="" the="" to="" trypsin="" undetectable="" were="">0.05) affected by the extrusion cooking, while there was a significant reduction (p<0 .05="" 2.51-4.05mg="" 6.21-8.96mg="" b="" c="" extruded="" from="" g="" in="" observed="" of="" p="" reductions="" significant="" snacks.="" sub="" the="" to="" vitamin="" were="">1 (40-50%), B2(15-24%), B3(15-24%) and B6(25-30%) content of the extruded snacks. Storage for six months did not adversely influence the sensory characteristics of the developed snacks. It is evident from the composition of the developed products that protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency problems can be averted through dietary diversification and extrusion cooking technology.

Title Page
Table of Contents

Chapter One
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of the Problem
1.2       Significance of the Study
1.3       Objectives of the Study

Chapter Two
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Extruded Snacks
2.2       Legumes
            2.2.1    Bambara groundnut
            2.2.2    Processing of legumes
            2.2.3    Milling and grinding
            2.2.4    Soaking, boiling and steaming
            2.2.5    Germination
            2.2.6    Roasting
            2.2.7    Preparation of protein concentrate
            2.2.8    Canning of legumes
            2.2.9    Quick cooking legumes
            2.2.10  Nutritional importance of legumes
            2.2.11  Antinutritional constituents of legumes
               Protease (Trypsin) inhibitor
                         Polyphenols (Tannins)
   Effect of processing on legume food quality
    Effect of processing methods on anti-nutrients
            2.3                               Extrusion cooking and its effect on food quality
            2.3.1                            Application of extrusion cooking
            2.3.2                            Advantages of extrusion cooking
            2.3.3                            Effect of extrusion cooking  on protein quality
            2.3.4                            Effect of extrusion cooking on the anti-nutrients
            2.3.5                            Effect of extrusion cooking on amino acids
            2.3.6                            Effect of extrusion cooking on Maillard reaction
            2.3.7                            Effect of extrusion cooking on carbohydrates
            2.3.8                            Effect of extrusion cooking on vitamins
            2.3.9                            Effect of extrusion cooking on minerals

Chapter Three
3.0       Materials and Methods
3.1       Materials
3.2       Methods
            3.2.1    Preparation of samples
3.4.0    Analysis of Raw Material and Product
            3.4.1    Proximate composition
   Mineral content analysis
   Determination of phosphorus
   Determination of Iron
   Determination of calcium
   Determination of potassium
   Determination of manganese
   Determination of copper
   Determination of magnesium
            3.4.3    In vitro protein digestibility
            3.4.4    Functional properties
            3.4.5    Determination of anti-nutritional factors
   Determination of vitamins
   β-carotene and Vitamin A
   Vitamin B1
   Vitamin B2
   Vitamin C
   Experimental design/data analysis

Chapter Four
4.0       Results and Discussion
4.1       Effect of Processing Treatment on the Proximate Composition of
            Bambara Groundnut
4.2       Effect of Processing Method of Some Anti-Nutritional Factors
4.3       Effect of Processing Methods on the Functional Properties of
            Bambara Groundnut
4.4       Effect of Treatment Method on Consumer Acceptability of
            Extruded Snacks
4.5       Proximate Composition of Hungry Rice “acha” and Fresh Carrot
4.6       Effect of Extrusion on the Proximate Composition of Bambara/
            Acha Blends Fortified with Carrot
4.7       Sensory Qualities of Extruded Snacks
4.8       Effect of Extrusion on the Residual Anti-nutrients
4.9       Effect of Extrusion on in-vitro protein Digestibility
4.10     Effect of Extrusion on the Mineral Content of the Bambara
            groundnut/Acha Blends Fortified with Carrot
4.11     Effect of Extrusion on the Vitamin Content of the Snacks
4.12     Effect of Storage on the Texture of the Extrudates
4.13     Effect of Storage on the Sensory Qualities of the Snacks
4.14     Effect of Storage on the Vitamin Content of the Snacks

Chapter Five
5.0       Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations


1.0                                                                 I N T R O D U C T I O N

In many developing countries such as Nigeria, malnutrition is an endemic dietary problem characterized by protein-energy malnutrition and micro-nutrient deficiency (Nnanyelugo, 1990; Bowley, 1995; Adelekan et al., 1997; WHO, 2005, 2006). In the past few years, efforts have been made to reduce or eliminate the problem globally. Dietary diversification has been suggested as the ultimate solution to malnutrition challenges. Dietary diversification involves the use of commonly available or consumed grains, legumes and other nutritious crops to meet the nutritional/dietary need of the population. Consequently, there is a need for baseline research to identify and exploit the potentials of locally available but under-utilized agricultural produce in nutritious product formulations.
Among the locally available under-utilized agricultural produce are bambara groundnut, hungry rice (“acha”) and carrot, whose utilization are presently limited to household level, even though they have potentials for industrial application. Bambara groundnut is an under-utilized indigenous African legume and one of the most important crops in the continent. Total production has been estimated to be over 300,000 tons per year (Poulter, 1981). It is an inexpensive source of high quality protein and the third most important legume in Africa, after cowpea and groundnut (Obizoba and Egbuna, 1992; Enwere and Hung, 1996). Despite this, its use is limited to household consumption in most parts of Nigeria. In Eastern States, the seed is used in the preparation of a steam gel popularly known as “Okpa” while in the Northern parts it is consumed in the form of meal or roasted snack. According to Poulter (1981), bambara groundnut contains 24% protein, 6-8% lysine, 1.3 methionine and 50% carbohydrate, it also contains reasonable quantities of minerals and vitamins.
Hungry rice commonly referred to as “acha”, “fonio” or “finni” is another under-utilised crop. It is estimated that over 101.3 tons is produced annually in Nigeria, mostly in the Northern States (Bauchi, Plateau and Kaduna) (CBN, 2005). Hungry rice is processed and consumed in a variety of ways such as “tuwo”, “kunnu”, “gote”, while whole grains are used in preparation of soup and porridge (Jideani, 1999). Hungry rice is reported to be uniquely rich in methionine and cystine (NRC, 1999). It also relatively evokes low sugar release on consumption, which is an advantage for diabetics (Ayo et al., 2003).
Carrot (Daucus carota) is one of the traditional root crops of Northern Nigeria. It is very rich in carotene the precursor of vitamin A, and contains appreciable amount of thiamine and riboflavin (Pederson, 1980). Carrot is fast acquiring the status of “lost crop” in the African continent because its local utilization is limited to direct eating in unprocessed form as snack (Pederson, 1980). There is need to diversify and popularize other means of utilizing carrot to derive maximum health benefit from its nutrient particularly carotenoids(carotene/β- carotene).
Blends of these nutrient dense agricultural produce could be exploited to develop nutritious shelf stable snacks, which could help in alleviating problems of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency prevalent in the country. However, to get maximum nutrient benefit from these crops, they need to be processed to reduce or remove inherent anti-nutrients that may interfere with the biological availability of the nutrients. Among the methods used in removing inherent anti-nutrients include roasting, germination, frying, cooking and recently extrusion cooking (Siegal and Fawcett, 1976; Rajawat et al., 1999, Nwabueze, 2006).

Extrusion cooking technology is a high temperature short time (HTST) technology. It has been extensively used in producing varieties of food products, especially in creation of novel food products and improvement of existing ones like snacks (Lowtan et al., 1985; Lasekan et al., 1996). It is considered a beneficial food processing technique, due to its effective destruction of growth inhibitors and contaminating micro-organisms (Tarte et al., 1989; Chang et al., 2001). It has also been shown to improve the nutritional quality of food products like snacks (Pham and Rosario, 1987, Rajawat et al., 1999; Nwabueze, 2006).

1.1        Statement of the problem

Most developing countries experience high burden of protein – energy malnutrition and severe micro-nutrient deficiencies, which have attracted the numerous interventions by major stakeholders, to mitigate the challenges. Dietary diversification involving the use of commonly available or consumed grains, legumes and other nutritious crops to meet the nutritional needs of the population has often been advocated. Consequently, the idea of production of nutrient dense ready-to-eat extruded snacks from blends of bambara groundnut, hungry rice (“acha”) and carrot....

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