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Breast cancer as a scourge has become a global issue and its threat has led to a growing consciousness among women who are potential victims. This is why Pink Pearl Foundation (PPF) Breast Cancer Campaigns is undertaking an awareness and attitude change campaign to influence positive behaviour towards its prevention among women. Hence, this study evaluates the effectiveness of Pink Pearl Foundation (PPF) Breast Cancer Campaigns among women in south-south Nigeria. Using the survey and content analysis methods of research, responses were generated from randomly selected respondents, while data were drawn from manifest content of communication of the newspapers as well as responses from women using questionnaire. A sample size of 300 was used for this study. The findings reveal among other things, that there is lack of depth in knowledge about PPF breast cancer campaign and also lack of prominence in newspaper coverage of the phenomenon. Hence, the researcher recommends that journalists should go beyond the normal straight news reporting to giving background and interpretation to health issues of this nature to improve knowledge and engender positive behaviour from readers.


Title page
Table of Contents
List of Figures and Tables

1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms

2.1       Empirical Review on Breast Cancer Knowledge, Attitude and Practice
2.2       Causes of Breast Cancer and Risk Factors
2.3       Prevention of Breast Cancer
2.4       Management of Breast Cancer
2.5       Theoretical Framework

3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3       Sampling Techniques
3.4       Sample Size
3.5       Instrument for Data Collection
3.6       Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.7       Method of Data Analysis

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2       Discussion of Findings
4.3       Summary of Findings

5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations



1.1 Background of the Study
The prevalence of Breast Cancer among Nigerian women has been the subject of discourse in recent time. Each diagnosis of cancer usually comes with fear, confusion as well as the uncertainty of survival, which can be alleviated by timely information that can produce behavioural change.

Over the years, information has increasingly been considered important in helping people cope with cancer (Meredith & Symonds, 1996). Numerous studies have shown the continuing dissatisfaction with current information provisions in terms of content and delivery mechanisms. Lack of timely and accurate information has been responsible for not meeting the needs of women with breast cancer, given that information can play an important role in patient’s empowerment and satisfaction. (Jenkins & Fallowfield, 2001; Bray, McCarron & Parken, 2005; Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004)

Breast cancer has touched the lives of countless people, yet many women have misconceptions about the disease. One of the most common sources for breast cancer information used by Non-governmental Organizations in their campaigns is the newspaper.

Every day, women read facts about breast cancer awareness followed by messages telling them to get mammogram, perform breast self-examinations, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy diet to reduce their risk of developing breast cancer. Information about breast cancer during these campaigns such as risk factors, preventive measures and findings of recent studies about the disease frequently appear in the media. The mass media, especially the newspaper, play a vital role in public understanding of many health issues and the information relayed to the public through this medium often influences health behaviour (Kreps, 2003).
Health care consumers play a more active role in their health than ever before and they show increased interest in health information published in popular newspapers (Moyer, 1995).

The public views the media as an important source of information on science, health and wellness issues (Andsager & Powess, 1999). Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide; it is a major cause of death among women aged 30 and above. It is the most common form of cancer among women in both high and low resource setting countries (Bray, McCarron & Parken, 2005; Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004; WHO Global Burden of Disease, 2004).

Presently, breast cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally, with over one million new cases diagnosed annually, resulting in over 400,000 annual deaths and about 4.4 million women living with the disease. It also affects one in every eight women during their lifetime (Dumitrescu & Crotaria, 2004; Bray, McCarron & Parkin, 2005; Okobia, Bunker, Okonofua & Usifo, 2006).

But the recent report from the World Health Organization (WHO) calls for urgent action against the cancer scourge (Chukwuma & Wole, 2012). According to their report, by the year 2020, cancer could kill up to 10 million people yearly with the number of cancer cases increasing from 11 million in 2002 to 15.7 million in 2020 worldwide. Following this report, WHO estimates that cancer could kill some 84 million people by 2020 if preventive measures are not taken (Onyebuchi, 2012).

Breast cancer is cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk (Ademola, Adenike, Adebo & Abraham, 2007). Cancers originating from ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those originating from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. It is the commonest cause of death in women worldwide.

In view of this scourge, so many campaigns have been carried out and are still ongoing by different bodies (NGOs) under the umbrella of Pink Breast Cancer Campaigns (PBCC). Some of these organizations are African Health Project, African Association of Health Disease, Breast Cancer Association of Nigeria (BRECAN), Global Health Foundation, Pink Dove Charitable Initiative, Pink Pearl Foundation, Breast without Spot Initiative, Genevieve Pink Ball, etc. These preventive measures represent efforts of the organization and other global initiatives to achieve interventions using newspaper campaigns.

Given the disturbing data on the widespread problem of breast cancer in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to create large scale media campaigns by using newspapers that raise awareness and increase prevention of breast cancer. In 2007, Pink Pearl Foundation was launched as an initiative to combat the scourge in Nigeria – specifically with the production and implementation of multi-media, multi-platform awareness and prevention campaigns focusing on women.

The control and prevention of Breast Cancer has become a centre piece of activities of so many Non-governmental and Federal Ministry of Health with the target of reducing the death rate caused by this malignant. Meeting the objectives of these organizations and the broader aims of the campaigns would transform the lives of millions of people especially women who will be spared from cancer burden and premature death. Prevention becomes the best protection for cancer. It includes: awareness, breast self-examination and mammogram.

In an effort to promote breast cancer early detection, health communicators turn to the media for three primary purposes: (1) as part of a campaign for prompt screening and promote screening behaviour (2) add the campaign of breast cancer screening to the public agenda and (3) working for policy changes that lead to increased rates of screening (Freimuth, 1995)
The health of women is of great importance because of several negative lifestyle behaviours including higher intake of animal and hydrogenated fats and lower intake of fibre (Popkin, 2006). These negative lifestyle behaviours are placing women at an increased risk of lifestyle influence which causes death. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) identifies ten leading causes of death among women.... 

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