There is poor achievement of Secondary school students in shorthand and small number of secondary school students register shorthand in external examinations especially in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. This study, therefore, focused on the effects of DVD content package on secondary school Students’ achievement and interest in Shorthand in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study specifically, aimed at determining the achievement and interest of secondary school male and female students in shorthand. In order to guide the study six research questions were answered and six null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance. The study was a quasi–experimental one in which two co-educational secondary schools selected from nine (9) co-educational schools in Onitsha Education Zone were used. The population of the study was five thousand nine hundred and thirty-three (5,933) senior secondary school one (SSS1) students in the area. Two instruments (achievement test in shorthand and shorthand interest inventory) were used as the instruments for data collection. These instruments were validated by six experts. The reliability co- efficient of the Achievement Test stood at .94 and .the reliability of the Shorthand Interest Inventory stood at .95. Mean was used in answering the research questions and the hypotheses were tested at .05 level of probability. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was also used to partial out the initial differences of the research subjects because intact classes were used in the study. The findings of the study were as follows: DVD content package had significant effect on secondary school students’ achievement and interest in shorthand. Gender and method had no significant effect on the achievement and interest of secondary school students in shorthand. These findings provided the basis for some related conclusions as follows: DVD content package enhanced students’ achievement and interest in shorthand, DVD content package gave equal opportunity to male and female students in achieving well in shorthand, DVD content package is effective in teaching shorthand and in development of interest in shorthand. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made such as: shorthand teachers should use DVD content package in teaching and curriculum planners should include use of DVD content package in teaching Shorthand.


Title page
Table of contents
List of Tables

Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Significant of the Study
Purpose of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Research Hypotheses

Conceptual Framework
The Concept of Shorthand
The Concept of Digital Versatile Disc
Conventional Methods of Teaching Shorthand
Lecture Method
Discussion Method
Problem-Solving Method
Interest as a Factor in Shorthand Learning
Concept of Achievement
Relationship Among the Concepts
Theoretical Framework
Learning Theories in Shorthand
Theories Underlining Digital Versatile Disk Technology
Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Reviewed

Research Design
Area of Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Experimental Procedure
Control of Extraneous Variables
Method of Data Analysis

Summary of Findings

Discussion of Results
Educational Implications
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Research



Background of the Study
Among all the myriad of components of the education process, curriculum seems to be the most ambiguous because as a concept it has many competing definitions. This is because curriculum reflects societal characteristics and trends. People therefore tend to look at the curriculum based on their educational aims and objectives, beliefs, and how these would be executed. People also gave many interpretations to curriculum. Okobiah (2009) gave the following people’s interpretations:

§  Curriculum is content.

§  Curriculum is a programme of studies or a course of study.

§  Curriculum is everything that goes on within the school including extra class activities, guidance and interpersonal relationships.

§  Curriculum is a series of experiences undergone by learners in school.

§  Curriculum is that which an individual learner experiences as a result of schooling. Curriculum is a vehicle used in transmitting all these interpretations. For Obi (2010) curriculum is the vehicle for the transmission of social values, norms and orientations.

Obetta and Okide (2011) see curriculum as a broad term meant to include the complete experience of the learner while under the guidance and direction of the school. Ezeliora and Eze (2000) define it as a set of opportunities to engage the learner in or outside the school under the guidance and direction of the school. In addition Offorma (2009) explains curriculum as course of study which is undertaken by learners in order to earn a certificate, diploma, degree or any other forms of academic awards. Curriculum is therefore the totality of experiences, opportunities, courses, subjects and activities which may be academics or non-academics that school offers to the students. It is planned according to the educational objectives of a country. After passing through the experiences or the courses or

the subjects as the case may be, the learners are issued certificates.

Shorthand is one of the subjects in secondary school curriculum. The 2004 edition of National Policy on education included Shorthand as one of the vocational subjects offered in the senior secondary school. Also the 2008 New Senior Secondary Educational Curriculum Structure at a Glance included Shorthand as one of the trade subjects.

Shorthand is a system of representing or writing English Language by symbols. It is the art of representing spoken sounds by characters or symbols. Shorthand is the representation of spoken sounds by signs (Ibegbu, 2011 and Pitman, 1978). Igbonoba (2004) defined shorthand as a skill subject which involves the use of the head, the heart and the hand in quick response to spoken words. It is a symbolic system of writing method that increases speed of writing as compared to a normal method of writing a language. For Odea, Sykes, Watson and Williams (1999) Shorthand is a way of rapidly writing spoken sounds. Ile (1999) explained shorthand as science or art of writing spoken sounds by characters. Also Njumogu and Njumogu (2010) see shorthand as art of representing spoken sounds by signs.

Shorthand enables someone who is well trained in it to write as people speak. This art of writing as people speak is not possible in longhand. For Ezenwafor (2009) shorthand is bedrock of stenograph which enables confidential secretaries to write spoken sounds at such a high speed as 100 and 120 words per minute which is practically impossible in longhand. Shorthand has been with the society for long.

The earliest form of shorthand system is from Ancient Greece. For Westfall (1963), the earliest form of shorthand, which is from Aeropolice stone, is from Ancient Greece. Some ancient form of shorthand, were used before this time. For example, Shorthand of Tyro Cicero’s Amanuensis was used for centuries before 1599 when Timothy Bright published his 500-odd symbols for words. In 1602 Rev. John Willis published the Art of Stenography. A French system was developed by Jacques in 1651 and a German system of shorthand was developed in 1679. Also, modern looking geometric shorthand was introduced with John

Byron’s New Universal Shorthand of 1720. Samuel Taylor published his own similar system

in 1786. The Pitman shorthand, which was introduced first by Sir Isaac Pitman in 1837, is in

use in Nigeria although in USA and some other parts of the world, it has been largely

superseded by the Gregg shorthand that was first published in 1888. The process of writing

Shorthand is called stenography.

There are many systems of shorthand namely; Sloan, Pitman 2000, New Era, Gregg, Teeline and Speedwriting. Pitman 2000 is used for this study. Pitman shorthand system is based on phonetics. In Pitman shorthand there are consonants and vowels and all the sounds produced in the speech are divided into consonants and vowels.

Consonants are those sounds which are produced only when the breath is held partially or completely. In Pitman 2000, there are 24 consonants with 26 characters. Two consonants namely R and H have two characters each. Consonant R has r up and r down while consonant H has h up and h down. Consonants are in form of alphabets while characters are the signs or symbols which are used in representing the consonants. Vowels are represented by dots and dashes. There are six long vowel sounds and six short vowel sounds. There are also three vowel places and three vowel positions.

In Pitman 2000 shorthand there exists some short forms and phrases. Short forms are frequently occurring words. Examples, of short forms are: go, do, are, they, to, and, of, is, be, but, it, the, too, two, which, who, come, give, them and others. Phrases are joining of two or more words together. A typical shorthand system provides symbols for common phrases. Examples of phases are: to-the, is-the, on-the, it-is-the, give-the, come-to-the, give-them-the, they-are and others. Short forms and phrases are important because they help in writing shorthand very fast.
There are some principles or rules or guides in writing shorthand. Some of these principles.....

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