The relevance of science to life and society, made the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE), to stipulate in the polytechnic curriculum that non-science students should offer general courses in sciences. Biology is one of the sciences they are expected to study and pass before graduation. Biology is the study of living things and their relationship with one another and with the environment. It equips the students with useful knowledge that enables them to face challenges before and after graduation. It has been observed in polytechnics that more students enroll in non science disciplines than in science disciplines and that they consistently perform poorly in biology. Inappropriate teaching technique was one of the several reasons given for students’ poor achievement in biology. This study investigated the effect of Overlay Technique of Multimedia Projection (OVMP) on the achievement in biology of non-science students of different scientific literacy levels in Nigerian polytechnics in Anambra State. It examined the influence of gender on students' achievement in biology. The interaction effects of projection technique and scientific literacy as well as gender were also examined. Five research questions and five null hypotheses guided the study. The study was non-equivalent pretest post-test control group quasi experimental design involving one experimental and one control group. Four non-science departments were selected by stratified random sampling technique from the four non-science schools in the Federal Polytechnic Oko. Five hundred and eighty six non-science students in the selected departments formed the sample. The four intact departments were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups - two departments, Banking and finance (BF) and Office Technology Management (OTM) were assigned to experimental group while Fashion Design Technology and Library Studies (LS) were the control group. Two instruments, Biology Achievement Test (BAT), developed by the researcher and a standardized Scientific Literacy Test (SLT) were used for data collection. The validity and reliability of these instruments were established. The internal consistency of these instruments was established using Kuder-Richardson 20. The reliability coefficient obtained was 0.95 and 0.86 respectively. Mean, Standard Deviation, analysis of Covariant (ANCOVA) and Multiple Classification Analysis (MCA) were used to analyze and interpret data. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the five research questions while the five null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance (P<0 .05="" analysis="" covariance="" of="" results="" showed="" span="" style="color: #141010;" using="">that Overlay Technique of Multimedia Projection significantly enhanced students’ achievement in Biology. The results revealed that overlay technique was more effective in facilitating students’ academic achievement in biology than plain technique used in the control group. The results also revealed that scientific literacy was a significant factor but gender was not a significant factor in students’ achievement in biology. The results revealed a significant interaction effect of teaching technique and scientific literacy, but there was no significant interaction effect of the teaching technique and gender on students’ achievement in biology. The major conclusion drawn from the study was
that learning was effective using overlay technique of multimedia projection. The technique promoted the achievement in biology of students of high and low scientific literacy levels. The implication of this was that the use of OVMP will improve students’ achievement in biology. The study recommended the use of overlay technique of multimedia projection in teaching non-science students biology. The study also recommended adequate training of biology lecturers on the use of instructional technique in Nigerian polytechnics.



Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions

Conceptual Framework
Biology in the curriculum of Polytechnic
Concept of Multimedia
Projection Technique
Concept of Scientific Literacy
Concept of Gender
Theoretical Framework
Cognitive theory of multimedia
Review of Empirical Studies
Effect of Multimedia and Modes of Media Presentation on achievement
Studies on Scientific Literacy
Studies on Gender Related Differences in Science Achievement
Summary of Literature Review

Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Development o f Instructional Materials for the Study
Instruments for Data Collection
Biology Achievement Test
Scientific Literacy Test
Validation of the Instruments
Reliability of the Instruments
Item Analysis
Scoring of Instruments
Training of Research Assistants
Experimental Procedure
Control of Extraneous Variables
Method of Data Analysis

Summary of Findings

Discussions of Results
Implications of the Result
Limitations of the Study
Suggestions for Further Study
Summary of the Study



Background of the study

Science is a great enterprise which a nation depends on in order to move

forward technologically and economically. The role of science in this modern era of

technology is wide and profound. That is why science is receiving much emphasis at

all levels of our educational system. The National Policy on Education (Federal

Republic of Nigeria, 2004) emphasized the teaching of science at all levels in order to

cultivate and develop in the minds of children the spirit of scientific and reflective

thinking so that a great and dynamic economy could be built.  Science learning is

expected to produce individuals that are capable of solving their problem as well as

those of the society (Nwagbo & Chukelu, 2011). The actualization of the stated

objectives in the National Policy on education rests on the education sector,

particularly the school with teachers being the actual actors (Udofot, 2005).

The significance and relevance of science to life and society is not in doubt.

This made the National Board for Technical Education (1999) to reemphasize the

teaching of science to non science students in Polytechnics, in such a way that

students will acquire fundamental knowledge in science to enable them apply science

to practical life. The polytechnic education is a non-university tertiary education, offering a variety of technical, technological and business programmes at the National Diploma (ND) and Higher National Diploma (HND) levels leading to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge. So far, the polytechnic has expanded its scope to become involved in both research and development in wider areas of science and technology. The polytechnic education according to the National Policy on Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004) aims to achieve the following specific goals; to:

a.  Provide fulltime or part-time courses of instruction and training in engineering, other technologies, applied sciences, business and management, leading to production of trained manpower.

b.      Provide the technical knowledge and skills for agriculture, commercial and economic development of Nigeria.
c.      Give training and impart the necessary skills for the production of technicians, technologists and other skilled personnel who shall be enterprising and self-reliant.

d.      Train people who can apply scientific knowledge to solve environmental problems for the convenience of man.
e.      Provide exposure to professional studies in the technologies.

Polytechnics  pursue  these  objectives  through  teaching,  research,  staff

development, dissemination of knowledge and service to the community through extension services. To ensure effective delivery of their services, the policy recommended that lecturers in tertiary institutions should be required to undergo training in the methods and techniques of teaching (Eshiotse, 2006; Onuoha, 2007).

The National Board for Technical Education (1999) stipulated in the polytechnic curriculum that science students should offer general study courses in arts while the non-science students offer general study courses in sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology which they are expected to study and pass before graduation. Out of these science subjects, Biology appears to be the most popular because more students opt for biology than for chemistry and physics. Biology is a subject that is concerned with the study of the life and structure of plants and animals which include man and his environment. It is the study of living things, their relationship with one another and with the natural environment (Onyegegbu, 2001). It helps in providing the students an insight into a national problem of human overpopulation, hunger, low food production, poor disease control, and inadequate environmental conservation (Gbodi & Nworgu, 2006). The study of Biology by the non-science students in Polytechnics equips these students with useful concepts, principles and theories that enable them face challenges before and after graduation.

The usefulness of Biology instruction to these students can be seen from the content of their curriculum. In topics like blood grouping and genotype, the specialized knowledge and techniques have formed the fundamental principles on which many diagnostic treatment are based and also the logical basis for blood transfusion. The study of genetics erases many misconceptions and superstitious beliefs. The study of heredity and variation in biology has provided information that has formed a logical basis for genetic counseling and provision of logical solution in certain cases of disputed paternity (Gbodi & Nworgu, 2006). The study of nutrition brings the students into a sharper focus on the need to maintain good health through balanced diet. The study of pollution leads the students to understand that pollution, conservation of natural resources; adaptation and tolerance are as a result of man’s activities in his environment. The knowledge acquired from the study of pollution is utilized to make the physical environment serve man better. It is therefore not....

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