CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH AND IGBO TENSE FORMATION

ABSTRACT
This study examines the tense formation of the English and Igbo languages with a view to predicting the interference problems a learner of either language as a second language will encounter while forming tenses in the target language. The English and the Igbo languages differ in structure in many respects. As a result of these differences, the native speakers of both languages, transfer the features of the native language to the target language while forming tenses in the target language. Hence, it is quite obvious that interference from a learner’s native language is a source of error in the new language.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Table of Contents
Abstract

CHAPTER I:  INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Research Questions
1.4       Purpose of the Study
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Limitations of the Study

CHAPTER II:  LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Theoretical Studies
2.2       Empirical Studies
2.3       Summary

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Area of Study
3.2       Research Population
3.3       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER IV: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Presentation of Tense
4.3       The Present Tense
4.3.1    The Simple Present Tense
4.3.1.1 The Simple Present Tense in English
4.3.1.2 The Simple Present Tense in Igbo
4.3.1.3 Comparison
4.3.2    The Present Continuous Tense
4.3.2.1 The Present Continuous Tense in English
4.3.2.2 The Present Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.3.2.3 Comparison
4.3.3    The Present Perfect Tense
4.3.3.1 The Present Perfect Tense in English
4.3.3.2 The Present Perfect Tense in Igbo
4.3.3.3 Comparison
4.3.4  The Present Perfect Continuous Tense
4.3.4.1 The Present Perfect Continuous Tense in English
4.3.4.2 The Present Perfect Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.3.4.3 Comparison
4.4       The Past Tense
4.4.1    The Simple Past Tense
4.4.1.1 The Simple Past Tense in English
4.4.1.2 The Simple Past Tense in Igbo
4.4.1.3 Comparison
4.4.2    The Past Continuous Tense
4.4.2.1 The Past Continuous in English
4.4.2.2 The Past Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.4.2.3 Comparison
4.4.3    The Past Perfect Tense
4.4.3.1 The Past Perfect Tense in English
4.4.3.2 The Past Perfect Tense in Igbo
4.4.3.3 Comparison
4.4.4  The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
4.4.4.1 The Past Perfect Continuous Tense in English
4.4.4.2 The Past Perfect Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.4.4.3 Comparison
4.5       The Future Tense
4.5.1  The Simple Future Tense
4.5.1.1 The Simple Future Tense in English
4.5.1.2 The Simple Future Tense in Igbo
4.5.1.3 Comparison
4.5.2  The Future Continuous Tense
4.5.2.1 The Future Continuous in English
4.5.2.2 The Future Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.5.2.3 Comparison
4.5.3    The Future Perfect Tense
4.5.3.1 The Future Perfect Tense in English
4.5.3.2 The Future Perfect Tense in Igbo
4.5.3.3 Comparison
4.5.4  The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
4.5.4.1 The Future Perfect Continuous Tense in English
4.5.4.2 The Future Perfect Continuous Tense in Igbo
4.5.4.3 Comparison

CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
5.1       Summary
5.2       Findings
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendations
            References

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study
Contrastive analysis is concerned with the way in which the first language (L1) affects the target language (TL) learning in the individual. Contrastive analysis is founded on the assumption that TL learners will tend to transfer to the TL the formal features of their L1 (James, 1980:9). In agreement with this, Lado (1957:2) puts it thus:

Individuals tend to transfer the forms and meanings and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture.

Williamson & Blench (2000:103-104) note that Nigeria is a country with over 450 languages. Among these languages are Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba. These three major languages were elevated to the official language status (NPE, 1998:18).
Igbo is spoken natively in an area that covers the present Anambra, Imo, Abia, Enugu, Ebonyi as well as parts of Delta and Rivers states of Nigeria (Ofomata, 2002:252). It is also spoken or understood by a good number of the neighbouring ethnic populations. On the other hand, the teaching and learning of English in Nigeria, according to Otagburuagu (2002, 83), dates back to the early days of European trading expeditions as well as British colonization efforts: the introduction of Christian religion and western education by the early Christian missionaries. Early European political and commercial quests in Nigeria thus became a period of linguistic experimentation and language transfer for the nation. The term transfer is used to describe the process whereby a feature or rule from a learner’s first language is carried over to the second language grammar (O’Graddy, Dobrovolsky & Katamba, 1996:504).


The learner of a second language experiences errors and difficulties that occur as a result of mother tongue interference. Wherever the structures of the foreign language differ from those of the mother tongue, we can expect both difficulties in learning and

error in performance. Learning a foreign language is essentially learning to over-come

these difficulties. Ibe (2007:261) notes that a major area of defect in the performance of

second-language learners is in the command of grammatical structure and as such, the

learners transfer literally and without meaning the structures of the first language into the

second language.     For instance, grammatically, the usage of tense as posits Ibe

(2007:206) is one area where the performance of second language learners is rather

woeful and continues to get worse.


1.2         Statement of the Problem
The learning of a second language is no doubt with its own problems. O Grady

(1996:504) notes that one of the most easily recognizable traits of a second-language

learner’s speech is that it bears a certain resemblance to the first language.            Thus,

someone whose first language is English is likely to sound different from someone whose

first language is Igbo when they both speak either of the languages.

In the grammatical structure, it has been observed that the usage of tenses is one major area where the performance of second-language learners is woeful (Ibe, 2007:26). This is as a result of the differences in the structures of the native language and the target language. For example:
Si ya bia ______________      *Tell him/her come.

Jee zaa ulo ____________        *Go sweep house.

Nwoke ojii ___________           *Man black.

The structures of the above sentences show that the learner is carrying over patterns of the mother tongue into his target-language performance. Moreover, such a carryover seems to result in the large number of deviant sentences in areas where the structures of the native language and the target language differ the most (Fisiak, 1981:210).........

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 108 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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