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The main thrust of this study is to identify the politeness expression and strategies used in Erq xlq speech community. The study examines the concept of politeness. It discusses politeness expression strategies as they occur in Erq xlq speech community. It explains the various ways of expressing politeness in Erq xlq speech community.

It finally highlights the sociolinguistic implications of adopting politeness strategies during speech in Erq xlq speech community.


Title Page
Table of contents

1.0       Introduction
1.1       Background to the study
1.2       Statement of the problems
1.3       Objectives of the study
1.4       Significance of the study
1.5       Scope of the study
1.6       Research Questions
1.7       Limitations of the study
1.8       Definition of Term

2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Theoretical Studies
2.2       Empirical Studies

3.0       Research Methodology
3.1       Area of Study
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sampling Procedures
3.5       Research Instruments
3.6       Methodological Problems

4.0       Data Analysis
4.1       The Concept of Politeness in Language use
4.2       Politeness Expression Strategies in Erq Xlq Speech Community
4.3       Expressing Politeness in Erq xlq speech community
4.4       The Sociolinguistic Implications of Adopting Politeness Strategies
            during Speech in Erq xlq speech Community

5.1       Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations



Linguistics politeness is the way people choose to speak and how the hearers react to their speech.

Udosen (2006) observes that languages is a social instrument without which our human interaction would suffer.

The most universal forms of language behaviour are those used to show our routine needs, professional and social. No one is free to say just what one likes in whatever form of discourse. Rather, our conversation is a prescribed ritual in which an individual generally says what his fellow men expects him to say, observing the pragmatic rules, though unconsciously. In our societies today, living in harmony with nature, conforming to the norms of our common experience is the right conduct of interlocutors and politeness is that aspect of social behaviour which promotes harmonious living with nature and conformity to the norms of our common experience.

Coulmans as cited in Dioka (2009) claims that being polite is not an attribute of language but it depends on the interlocutors in a given speech situation. Politeness is socially determined, it is linked with social differentiations with making appropriates choices which may not be the same for everybody. Politeness criteria are not the same in different cultures, sometimes speaking indirectly is considered more polite than speaking directly like the Erq xlq dialect of Igbo.

1.1 Background to the Study

According to Yule (1995), Politeness, in an interaction can then be defined as the means employed to show awareness of another person’s face. In this sense politeness can be accomplished in situations of social distance or closeness. Showing awareness for another person’s face when that other seems socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference.

Similarly, Lakoff (1957), defines it as saying or doing the socially correct thing. Adebija in Prezi (2003) also says that politeness is associated with situations in which one speaks or behaves in a way that is socially and culturally acceptable and pleasant to the hearer. However according to Dioka (2009) Politeness in the practical sense of the word means doing or saying the right things with or among people.

Politeness is a virtue that is cultivated in every human being from infancy since every society has its own respect system. In all areas of the world, polite expressions are held in high esteem as the key to unlocking the beauty in the human nature and also in the society because without politeness there will be anarchy and chaos in our various societies. From the beginning of time, politeness, there will be anarchy and chaos in our various societies. From the beginning of time, politeness and polite expressions have been in existence, this is evident in the story of the Garden of Eden in the Bible, which can be seen in Genesis (3:1-15). Here, although man disobeyed God, God did not speak harshly to man but still talked to him as he had always done – politely.

In this study however, we will be narrowing our research to a particular area in African society which is Erq Xlq in Enugu state of Nigeria. Here we would take a look at the socio-linguistic implications of politeness and polite expressions and how it affects the very individuals we can relate with even in our rural areas. We strongly believe that politeness and polite expressions did not just start in our own generation and time but as always been in existence.....

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