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Wireless sensor network is application specific, which is deployed in an interested area like about hundred or thousands of sensor nodes. All the sensor nodes communicate via a wireless medium and works cooperatively to sense the environment in order to achieve the required task. Such sensor nodes which is application specific needs a good fault tolerance scheme to keep the system working. Since this sensor nodes are battery operated, have a small memory, deployed in harsh environmental condition and can easily be depleted. So we improved on distributed fault tolerance algorithm which enable the detection status of a node with fewer neighbors to be accurate and can also detect the status of a node in a multi-channel context. Our distributed fault tolerance algorithm uses majority voting with priority. Although in literature fault tolerance detection in multi-channel channel context has not really been put into practice.


Table of Contents

1.1 Introduction
1.2       Problem Statement
1.3       Objective
1.4       Motivation of Work
1.5       Significance of Study
1.6       Thesis Organization

2.1       State of Art of Multi-channel Communication in WSNs
2.2       Discussion of Fault-Tolerance in WSNs
2.3       Fault Types
2.4       Fault-Tolerance Occurrence at Different Level
            2.4.1    Hardware Level
            2.4.2    Software Level
            2.4.3 Application Level
            2.4.4    Network Communication Level
2.5       Classification of Fault-Tolerance Techniques
2.6       Fault Detection Approaches in WSN
            Centralized Detection Approach
            Decentralized or Distributed Approach
2.7 State of Art of Fault-Tolerance in WSN

3.0 Improved Distributed Fault-Tolerance Algorithm
3.1       Network Model
3.2       Fault Model
3.3       Existing Distributed Fault-Tolerance Detection Algorithm
3.4       Improved Distributed Fault-Tolerance Detection Algorithm
            3.4.1 Algorithm By Peng Jiang
            3.4.2 Step By Step Improved Algorithm
3.5       Discussion of Improved Algorithm

4.0 Simulation or Proofs of The Proposed Algorithm
4.1 Theorems and Proofs of the Improved Distributed Algorithm
4.2 Analysis of The Fault-Tolerance Algorithm
4.3       Simulation With Omnetpp4.2 and Castalia 3.2
4.4       Simulation Result

5.0 Recommendation and Conclusion
5.1       Resolved Issue
5.2       Unresolved Issue
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Challenges
5.5       Future Work



1.1        Introduction

Wireless sensor network consists of a number of sensor nodes and a base station (BS). A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organised into a cooperative networks [1], Sensors contain an on-board processor, perform simple computations within itself by using their processing capabilities to process their raw data before transmitting it to the central node sent to the BS. Wireless sensor nodes are low power, battery operated devices with limited computation and transmission ability [2].

Sensor node deployment in wireless sensor network architecture is shown in fig 1 and the component of sensor node its self is shown in fig 2.
In wireless sensor network (WSN) communication using the multi-hop mode where each node communicate with the base station using an intermediate node, thus the node closer to the base station of course become the only source through which all other node send their data to the base station which give rise to interference and low throughput since all other node compete to use node closer to the base station.
The WSN technology tremendous improvement has gained application in so many areas of our daily routine such as medical care, environmental monitoring, smart buildings, banks, telecommunication industry, many other industry and military application. Most of these sensor application are in harsh environment which can cause WSNs to be prone to failure as compared to other wireless networks, this involve safe mobility and performance, data quality and energy consumption. Data quality is defined as the number of readings received by the user divided by total number of readings generated by the network during an observation period [3]. To preserve resource and achieve high quality of data, we identify the following as key requirements for FT in WSNs [3]:

1.    Awareness of the network main operation and the status of the network resources.

2.    Adaptability to the frequent changes in WSNs conditions.

The Physical harsh environmental condition that can affect WSNs deployment are fire, rain, humidity, floods and any other physical thing that can affect it. All these can actually cause the sensor nodes to fail or transmit error messages. To guarantee the network quality of service and performance, it is essential for the wireless sensor networks to be able to detect faults, and to perform something akin to healing and recovering from events that might cause faults in the network, hence fault tolerance should be seriously considered in many wireless sensor network deployments....

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