DIFFICULT CONCEPTS IN CHEMISTRY AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS

ABSTRACT
This research work was carried out to investigate the difficult concepts in chemistry and their effects on the achievement of students’ in some secondary schools in Sokoto metropolis.

Criteria used in selecting schools were stratified random selection in which Five

(5)   schools were selected within Sokoto metropolis comprising of two (2) all female school, two (2) all male school and a mixed school so as to determine

whether there is significance gender difference in students’ perception of difficult concepts in chemistry.

Analysis of the data collected reveals that; concepts students perceived as difficult in chemistry and gender differences has little or no effect in the academic achievements of students’.


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Background to the study
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Purpose of the Study
1.5       Significant of the Study
1.6       Research Questions
1.7       Hypothesis
1.8       Scope and Delimitations

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Areas of Difficulty
2.2.1    Curriculum Content
2.2.2    Overload of the student working memory space
2.2.3    Language and Communication
2.2.4    Concept Formation
2.2.5    Motivation
2.3       Reducing obstacles to learning
2.3.1    Working memory space overloads
2.3.2    Recording previous knowledge

CHAPTER THREE:            RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the study
3.4       Sampling techniques
3.5       Instrument for collection of data
3.5.1    Validity of the instrument
3.5.2    Reliability of the instrument
3.6       Procedure for Data collection
3.7       Method of data analysis
3.8       Problems encountered in administering the questionnaire

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Data analysis
4.3       Answering research questions
4.4       Hypothesis testing
4.5       Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
REFERENCES
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE


1.1       Introduction


Chemistry as defined by Okeke and Ezekamgha(2000) as a branch of science that deals with composition and changes of matter. Chemistry is highly important for technological development and advancement of any nation. The number of chemists, physicists, doctors and science educators in a nation tells if the nation is developed, developing or underdeveloped.

Chemistry is regarded as the “central science” because everything from our skin to the air we breathe is made up of atoms and this is what chemistry revolves around. This phrase (central science) was popularized in a textbook by Theodore. L. Brown and H. Eugen Lemay titled “chemistry; the central science” which was first published in 1977 with a Thirteenth edition published in 2014.

Chemistry uses particles models to account for abstract constructs. Therefore, chemical processes such as melting, evaporation, dissolving, diffusion, electron transfer, ion conductor, intermolecular bond and many others are fundamental to learning of chemistry in schools and colleges.


A concept is defined as a “perceived regularity in objects or events” Or a record of events designed to be labeled. Typically, a concept is expressed using one or just a few words, one of which is a noun. Examples; Kinetic energy, thermodynamics e.t.c.

Further explanation will be discussed on the study and how chemistry concepts affect academic achievements of students in senior secondary school.

In the current study, effort would be made to identify the concepts that are difficult to students in chemistry so that the need to offer them a special treatment by science educators will be pointed out.

1.2       Background of the Study.

Background of this study is to identify the inherent factors and concepts that affect the achievement of students in chemistry. Such factors include; student’s misconception and preconception in chemistry, difficult and alternative conception in chemistry, difficulties with abstract...

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 70 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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