The study assessed the awareness and adoption of climate change and adaptation measures among arable crop farmers in the northern zone of Sokoto State Agricultural Development Project. Five out of the twelve Local Government areas in the zone were purposively selected using multistage random sampling techniques. Two hundred and forty respondents were randomly selected for the study from the list of registered farmers in Sokoto State Agricultural Development Project (SADP). The random or the purposive selection which was based on their poor climatic conditions, drought and subsequent long period of dry spells in the rainy season. Primary data were collected with the aid of a structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data was through the use of descriptive statistics, regression analysis and Chi-square analysis. The results showed that all of the respondents were male and married with a mean age of 31 years. The results also showed that 65% had no formal education. Furthermore, the household size has a mean of 6 persons, farm size has a mean of 2.5ha, farming experience has a mean of 12 years and annual income has a mean of N14, 742.92k. The adopted adaptation measures were: early planting (100), planting more than one crop (100%), using cover crop (92.9%), using soil conservation techniques (41.7%) and using early maturing crops (35.4%). The socio-economic factors that were significantly related to adoption were: annual income, farm size and farming experiences. Constraints to adoption of adaptation measures include: Inadequate operating capital, Illiteracy, Inadequate market and Poor access to extension services. The need for farmers to form cooperatives societies, provision of adequate extension support services, encouraging formal education through literacy programmes, provision of rural infrastructures, organizing seminars/ workshops on climate change adaptation measures, control of removal of trees and creating more rangelands were offered as recommendations.


Title Page
List of Tables
List of Figures
Acronyms and Abbreviations

1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Problem Statement
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Justification of the Study
1.5       Scope and Limitations
1.7       Delimitation

2.1       The Concept of Climate Change
2.2       Climate Change and Agriculture
2.3       Sokoto State Agro climate and Arable Crops Production
2.4       Farm Size, Climate Variability and Arable Crop Production
2.5       The Socio-economic Implications of Climate Change
2.6       Awareness of Climate Change and it’s with Agriculture
2.7       Farmers’ Activities Contributing to Climate Change
2.8       Pattern of Climate Change Impact on Agriculture
2.9 Indigenous Climate Change Adaptation Practices used by Farmers
2.10 Problems Encountered by Farmers in Climate Change Adaptation Measures
2.11 Theoretical Framework and Model of the Study
2.12 Explanation of the Framework

3.1       Description of the Study Area
3.2       Sampling Technique and Sample Size
3.3       Method of Data Collection
3.4       Measurement of Study Variables and Operational Definitions
3.5       Data Analysis
3.6       Model Specification
3.6.1 Regression Analysis
3.6.2 Chi-Square Analysis

4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondents
4.1.1 Age Distribution of the Respondents
4.1.2    Sex
4.1.3    Marital Status
4.1.4    Household Size
4.1.5    Educational Status
4.1.6    Respondents’ Occupation
4.1.7    Farm Size
4.1.8    Source of Farmland
4.1.9    Years of Farming Experience
4.1.10 Respondents’ Level of Income Per Annum
4.2       Respondents’ Production Enterprise
4.2.1    Arable Crop Produced
4.2.2    Crop Enterprise
4.2.3    Production Purpose
4.2.4    Determinant of Crop Choice
4.3       Awareness, Evidence and Duration of Climate Change
4.3.1    Awareness of Climate Change
4.3.2    Evidence of Climate Change
4.3.3    Duration of Climate Change
4.4       Respondents’ Sources of Information on Climate Change
4.5       Causes and Effects of Climate Change
4.5.1    Causes of Climate Change
4.5.2    Effects of Climate Change
4.6       Adaptation Measures adopted by the respondents
4.7       Respondents’ Constraints to Adoption of Adaptation Measures
4.8       Regression Analysis
4.9       Chi-Square Analysis

5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations

1.1         Background of the study
According to Ayoade (2006), climate is the mean state of atmosphere of an area over a defined period of 30 years, while climate change as defined by Anon (2009) is long term significant environmental changes in the average weather that a given region experiences. Average weather includes temperature, precipitation, wind, humidity, evaporation, pressure and solar radiation. It involves changes in the variability or average state of the atmosphere over durations ranging from decades to millions of years. These environmental changes include higher temperatures and altered precipitation patterns, increased frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events, such as droughts, floods and storms. These have short and long term socio-economic and political consequences including food insecurity, migration, conflicts over resources, damage to farms and increased spread of endemic water and vector- borne diseases ( Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (IPCC. 2007).
Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat facing mankind world-wide. It affects crop production in several ways, one of which is its direct impact on food production. Climatic change, which is attributable to natural climate cycle and human activities, has adversely affected agricultural productivity in Africa (Ziervogel et al,.2006). As the planet gets warmer, rainfall patterns shift, and extreme events such as droughts, floods, and forest fires become more frequent (Zoellick, 2009), which results in poor and unpredictable crop yields, thereby making farmers more vulnerable, particularly in Africa (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC, 2007). Farmers, who constitute the bulk of the poor in Africa, face prospects of tragic crop failures, reduced agricultural productivity, increased hunger, malnutrition and diseases (Zoellick, 2009). It is projected that crop yields in Africa may fall by 10-20% by 2050 or even up to 50% due to climate change (Jones and Thornton, 2002). This is particularly because African agriculture is predominantly rain-fed and hence fundamentally dependent on the vagaries of weather. Unfortunately, just as climate change is negatively affecting crops productivity, the steady increasing human population has led to a rise in the demand for food which caused more land to be put under agricultural cultivation, there will be more pressure on natural ecosystems (Ayoade, 2006; Explore (2005). As the people of Africa strive to overcome poverty and to advance economic growth, this phenomenon threatens to deepen vulnerabilities, erode hard-won gains and seriously undermine prospects for development (Zoellick, 2009). There is therefore the need for concerted efforts towards tackling this menace....

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 91 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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