For more Petroleum Engineering projects click here


Every simulation study is a unique process, starting from the geological model and reservoir description to the final analysis of recovery factor optimizations. In petroleum engineering area, numerical reservoir simulators are often employed to obtained meaningful and reliable solutions for most actual cases due to extreme complexity of reservoir systems.

In this work, a three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulator is developed for expansion-drive reservoirs. The governing equation is discretized using finite difference approach; conjugate gradient method with the aid of MATLAB 9.0.0R code is used to solve the system of linear equations to obtain reservoir pressure for each cell, until bubble point pressure is reached; cumulative production at bubble point is computed as sum of expansion from each cell and oil production rate is determined at each time step. The average reservoir pressure is determined as a weighted average based on the stock tank oil that is left in the reservoir, and finally the recovery factor at the bubble point pressure is computed.

Contour plots (with colour map to ease the user’s assimilation and interpretation of the simulator results), of reservoir pressure depletion with time were generated for different number of finite-difference grid blocks. The results indicate that the more the number of grid blocks used, the more accurate the numerical solution and the more detailed the description of the reservoir fluid distribution. The plot of average reservoir pressure against time shows a rapid decline in the average reservoir pressure due to the negligible compressibility associated with rock and liquid expansion-drive reservoirs. The estimated oil cumulative production of 236MSTB was recovered in 1180days up to the bubble point using the developed simulator. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the impact of key reservoir parameters the average reservoir pressure.



1.1 General Introduction

Reservoir simulation is the science of combining physics, mathematics, reservoir engineering, and computer programming to develop a tool for predicting hydrocarbon reservoir performance under various operating strategies (Aziz, K. and Settari, A. 1979).

The practice of reservoir simulation has been in existence since the beginning of petroleum engineering in the 1930's. But the term "numerical simulation" only became common in the early 1960's as predictive methods evolved into relatively sophisticated computer programs. These computer programs represented a major advancement because they allowed solution of large sets of finite-difference equations describing two- and three-dimensional, transient, multiphase flow in heterogeneous porous media. This advancement was made possible by the rapid evolution of large-scale, high-speed digital computers and development of numerical mathematical methods for solving large systems of finite-difference equations.

Fluid flow in petroleum reservoirs (porous media) is very complex phenomena, and as such analytical solutions to mathematical models are only obtainable after making simplifying assumptions regarding reservoir geometry, properties and boundary conditions. However, simplifications of this nature are often invalid for most fluid flow problems and in many cases, it is impossible to develop analytical solutions for practical issues due to the complex behaviors of multiphase flow, nonlinearity of the governing equations, and the heterogeneity and irregular shape of a reservoir system. Due to these limitations in the use of analytical method, these models must be solved with numerical methods such as finite difference.
Reservoir simulation is one of the most effective tools for reservoir engineers that involves developing mathematical equations or computable procedure that are employed to understand the behaviour of the real reservoir (Darman, 1999).

Today, numerical reservoir simulation is regularly used as a valuable tool to help make investment decisions on major exploitation and development projects. These decisions include determining commerciality, optimizing field development plans and initiating secondary and enhanced oil recovery methods on major oil and gas projects. Proper planning is made possible by use of reservoir simulation; it can be used effectively in the early stages of development before the pool is placed on production so that unnecessary expenditures can be avoided.

When crude oil is discovered, in order to have proper understanding of reservoir behaviour and predict future performance, it is necessary to have knowledge of the driving mechanisms that control the behaviour of fluids within reservoirs. The overall performance of oil reservoirs is largely determined by the nature of the energy available for moving the oil to the wellbore. The recovery of hydrocarbons from an oil reservoir is commonly recognized to occur in several recovery stages. They are: Primary recovery, Secondary recovery, Tertiary recovery (Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR), and Infill recovery.

Primary recovery is the recovery of hydrocarbons from the reservoir using the natural energy of the reservoir as a drive. The term refers to the production of hydrocarbons from a reservoir without the use of any process (such as fluid injection) to supplement the natural energy of the reservoir (Ahmed, 2006).

During primary recovery the natural energy of the reservoir is used to transport hydrocarbons towards and out of the production wells. There are several different energy sources, and each gives rise to a drive mechanism. Early in the history of a reservoir the drive mechanism will.....

For more Petroleum Engineering projects click here
This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions

Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts