THE IMPACT OF CAPITAL BUDGETING IN THE PRIVATE SECOR USING YOUR BRANCH AS A CASE STUDY

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROND OF THE STUDY

Every business firm normally will like to know how it perform over a period of time this leading to a preparation of profit and loss statement. They also ask about their position at a particular point in time, which lead them to the preparation of budget. A budget can be seen as a document or financial document used to project future income and expenses. In budgeting there are types of budget prepared by the firms, such as capital budget, sales budget and cash budget and so on. The process of preparing capital budget is called budgeting. Capital budget are long-term budget made for acquisition and expansion of fixed asset. Many firms prepares capital budget today, it was originated in the  United states of America (U.S.A). In America it was applied by all firms before the second world war. After the second World War many firm saw the need  to plan for capital expenditure, hence it is prevalence today. The Nigeria brewery limited and other beverage are not left  out in the train of firm that prepare budget for its capital expenditure. The process of capital budgeting is vital to any responsible, well managed business. if that business is public and owned by public shareholders, the budgeting process becomes more crucial, since shareholders can hold management accountable for accepting unprofitable projects that can have the effect of destroying shareholder value. The decision of whether to accept or deny an investment project as part of a company’s growth initiatives, involves determining the investment rate of return that such a project will generate. Capital budgeting is also vital to a business because it creates a structured step by step process that enables a company to develop and formulate long-term strategic goals, seek out new investment projects, estimate and forecast future cash flows, facilitate the transfer of information and creation of decision. Capital budget however is not easy as it is fought with a lot of problems.
1.2            STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The main purpose of setting up a private firm is to achieve enough sale revenue that will cover the fixed and the variable cost as well as live some profit to justify its existence. The introduction of many economic measures after the year 1982 aim at revamping the nations economic comes with many problem with which the brewery industries are not left out.
1.       The problem of change in the demand of beer.

In order to produce, firms in the brewery industry including (The Nigeria brewery limited) acquire fixed assets as well as raw material. This acquisition is based on the expected demand. The demand of beer can not now be fairly estimated because of the general rises in the price. General rise in the price of beer has made the customers to shift their demand to other goods. These bring about decrease in the demand for beer. The uncertainty surrounding the continuance rate at which the demand of beer decrease has become of the problem encountered by the capital budget especially by the Nigeria breweries limited since the capacity of the production is always affected by the change in the demand of product. 


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