DETERMINATION OF THE LEVEL OF ETHANOL IN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES PRODUCED IN NIGERIA AS AN INDICATION FOR SAFETY STANDARD

ABSTRACT
This project is a survey of level of alcohol in beverages produced in Nigeria and to ascertain the compliance of the producers in accordance with accepted values on WHO recommendation. Six brands of alcoholic beverages (Guilders, star Harp, Heineken, Stout and Legend) were bought in Awka in Anambra state. The samples were analyzed for level of alcohol (Ethanol) using acid dichromate reaction and visible spectroscopy methods. The result obtained for bottom fermented beers; Guilders 5.1, star 5.3, Harp 5.2, Heineken 5.1, top fermented beer Stout 7.2 and Legend6.5 were compared with the European Brewing convention standard of 5.1+0.2 and 7.3+0.2 for bottom and top fermented beer respectively. The result showed , permissible levels for each of the six samples analyzed which are within acceptable limit except for legend stout with alcohol content of 6.5 against 7.3+ 0.2 which is the European Brewing convention standard for top  fermented beer. The six samples are within the acceptable limit.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Table of Contents
Abstract
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE
 Introduction
1.1   Background of Study
1.2   Statement of the Problem
1.3   Objective of the Study
1.4   Significance of the Study
1.5   Scope of Study
1.6 Research Question
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
2.1   Alcohol content of Beverages
2.1.1        Alcohol Strength
2.1.2 The OIML Scale
2.1.3        Standard Drinks
2.1.4        Effects of Alcohol on the Body
2.1.5        Alcohol Intakes and Health
2.1.6 Ethanol and the Brain 
2.1.7 Ethanol and Cancer       
2.1.8  Ethanol and the Heart
2.2   Other Effects of Ethanol
2.2.1 Oxidation of Ethanol

CHAPTER THREE
Materials and Methods
3.1   Materials
3.2   Collection of Sample
3.3    Methods
3.3.1   Preparation of Standard Ethanol Solution
3.3.2          Preparation of Acid Dichromate Solution
3.3.3  Measuring the Absorbance

CHAPTER FOUR
Results

CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1   Discussion
5.2   Conclusion
5.3   Recommendation
Reference  
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1   Background of the study.
        An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol (commonly called alcohol), also called ethylalcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol or drinking alcohol. It is a volatile flammable colorless liquid. It is a powerful psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcohol beverages and thermometer. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol or spirit (Brain and Allan, 2005).
        Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes, beer, wines and spirits. They are legally consumed in most countries and over 100 countries have laws regulating their production and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink the minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the country and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age. Alcohol beverages are valued on account of their flavour and their stimulating effect and hardly at all as a source of energy; nevertheless, it is worth nothing that the energy value of dry wine is about equal to that of milk. The three classes of alcoholic beverages are all made from carbohydrate materials by fermentation and their particular ingredient used and the way in which it is processed chiefly determines the character of the drink. The starting material used depends upon the product required. For example whisky is made from grain, Rum from molasses, wine from grapes, beer from malt and cider from apples (Morris Jacobs, 2009). The production and consumption of alcohols occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter gatherer people to nation states.

1.2   Statement of the Problem.
        Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social event in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction-mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 64 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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