THE IMPACT OF THE IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ON WATER QUALITY IN CHÓKWÉ IRRIGATION SCHEME

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this Thesis was to determine the impact of the irrigation system and agricultural production on water quality in an irrigation scheme. The investigate irrigation system was located in the village of Chókwé, Mozambique. The irrigation system extends up to 28 600 hectares of agricultural land area. Fields in Chókwé produce mainly rice (half of the area) and other crops (cereals, cotton) and mainly vegetables during winter time. In the Thesis was focused on the Mozambican part of the Limpopo Basin.

In our Thesis were measured six different water quality parameters: nitrate, phosphorus, pH, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. In order to determine the exact pH- value the water temperature was measured, too. We investigated The samples examined in the Thesis were taken from 40 sites. All together there were 98 sampling sites. The measured data was analyzed by using the SPSS software. According to this research the most significant differences between the irrigation and the drainage canals occur in the pH -values and in the conductivity levels of the water. Nitrate and phosphorus concentration, turbidity and dissolved oxygen concentration seem to have no statistical significances. Nitrate and phosphorus concentrations are very low, below Mozambican standards.

This study is made in the cooperation with Universidade Eduardo Mondlane and Savonia University of Applied Sciences as a part of North&Shouth Higher Education Institution Network Programme. In March 2008 there was the first intensive course shared by four countries Mozambique, Kenya, Finland and South Africa. The next intensive course will be held in Kenya in the fall 2009.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Objective
1.3 Scope

2 FACTS ABOUT MOZAMBIQUE
2.1 Facts about Chókwé
2.2 Facts about Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

3 CHARACTERISTICS OF LIMPOPO RIVER BASIN
3.1 Geography
3.2 Topography and landscape
3.3 Climate
3.4 Geology
3.5 Hydraulic infrastructure
3.6 Demography

4 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS
4.1. Surface irrigation
4.2 Basin irrigation
4.3 Furrow irrigation
4.4 Border irrigation
4.5 Traditional systems
4.6 Modernised systems
4.7 Sprinkler irrigation systems
4.8 Irrigation system in Chókwé
4.8.1 Problems in irrigation systems in Chókwé

5 DESCRIPTION OF WATER PARAMETERS
5.1 Temperature
5.2 Electrical conductivity
5.3 pH
5.4 Turbidity
5.5 Nitrates
5.6 Phosphorus
5.7 Oxygen concentration

6 WATER QUALITY DIRECTIVES AND STANDARDS
6.1 European Water Framework Directive
6.2 System of classification of rivers in Finland
6.3 Water quality standards of Mozambique

7 METHODS
7.1 Equipment
7.1.1 Hach’s Portable Colorimeter DR/850
7.1.2 pH 340i/SET meter by WTW
7.1.3 Palintest* Micro 500 Conductivity meter
7.2 Practical details
7.3 Statistical analyses
7.3.1 Paired samples T-test
8 RESULTS
8.2 Differences between irrigation water and drainage water -Paired measurements
8.2.1 Conductivity differences between irrigation water and drainage water
8.2.2 pH differences between irrigation water and drainage water
8.2.3 Nitrate concentration differences between irrigation and drainage water
8.2.4 Phosphorus concentration differences between irrigation water and drainage water
8.2.5 Turbidity value differences between irrigation water and drainage water
8.3 Results of the paired samples T-test

9 CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION

10 SOURCES



1  INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Many people think that Africa is a humid, tropical continent. In reality, 65% of the continent’s land area is classified as arid or semi-arid. Six of the driest countries in the world are found in Africa and this number is expected to double by the year 2025. The majority of Africa’s population live in the continent’s tropical greenbelt, which includes the Congo River basin and the coastal forests in the west and east Africa, so the distribution of water resources is linked to the distribution of the people. The quality and quantity of water is a vital factor in determining the well-being of the population. The fact that the population is concentrated to the tropical greenbelt is also related to the availability of land suitable for cultivation. In the African continent, there is 0,7 ha of arable land per person, which is lower than in any other part of the world except Asia. (Atlas 2003, p.13.)


The shortages of arable land and water are made worse by Africa’s rapid population growth, which is the fastest in the world. The population growth and poor economic performance have put increasing pressure on Africa’s resources. People are forced to live in the marginal areas; urban settlements or semi-productive land. While the continent is economically dependent of agriculture, the agricultural loses are expected to increase in the future as farmers make the production more effective by using inappropriate farming practices that lead to soil erosion of cultivated land. (Atlas 2003, p.13.)

River basins are the foundation of the link between land and water. Because water runs downhill, basins usually start at a top of a mountain where water starts to flow in different directions. Water running downhill forms a river or a stream, flowing above or below the surface, and usually flows to the sea. Throughout history rivers have been used as natural borders between countries and regions. Because rivers usually flow somewhere in the middle of the basins, many river basins are shared by two or more countries. Southern Africa has one of the most complex networks of international rivers and shared river basins and Mozambique is the extreme case, with nine international river systems. The Limpopo River basin is one of them. (Atlas 2003, p.16.)

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 89 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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