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The study seeks to find out the causes of migration in Sankana (a rural community) to urban cities and the effects it has on community mobilization, community participation and on the extended family system in Sankana.

The study is both a qualitative and a quantitative research, which was done by sampling a small proportion of the population of Sankana. Interview schedule, interview guide and a focus group discussion guide were used to collect data from participants. The sampling process involved non-probability purposive sampling technique and purposive sampling technique. The sample of the purposive sampling technique included chiefs and elders, opinion leaders, community members and district assembly members.

The study found out that, the causes of migration was mainly due to poverty, followed by lack of education, lack of social amenities and unpredictable rainfall patterns in that order. It was also established that migration did have a negative influence on community mobilization, community participation and on the extended family system.


1 Introduction
            1.1 Statement of the Problem

2 Problem description/Background
            2.1 Location and size of the study area
            2.1.1 Study Population and geology
            2.1.2 Drainage Relief and Vegetation

3 Theoretical Framework
            3.1 Introduction
            3.2 Migration
            3.3 Types of Migration
            3.3.1 Internal Migration
            3.3.2 External Migration
            3.3.3 Emigration
            3.3.4 Immigration
            3.3.5 Population Transfer
            3.3.6 Impelled Migration
            3.3.7 Step Migration
            3.3.8 Chain Migration
            3.3.9 Return Migration
            3.3.10 Seasonal Migration
            3.4 What is Rural Area?
            3.5 Rural-Urban Migration in Ghana
            3.6 Community Development
            3.7 Community Participation
            3.8 Extended Family System
            3.9 Migration in Ghana
            3.10 Migration in the Nadowli-Kaleo District
            3.11 Causes of Migration in Ghana
            3.12 Effects of Migration
            3.13 Benefits of Rural-Urban Migration

4   Purpose and Research Question
            4.1 Specific Research Objectives
            4.2 Research Questions
            4.3 Significance of the study

5 Method
            5.1 Introduction
            5.2 Research Design
            5.3 Sample and Sampling Procedures
            5.4 Sources of Data
            5.5 Data Collection Instruments
            5.6 Data Presentation and Analysis

6 Results
            6.1 Introduction
            6.2 Background Characteristics of Respondents
            6.2.1 Gender Distribution
            6.2.2 Occupational Distribution of the Respondents
            6.3 Opinions about the Causes of Rural-Urban Migration in Sankana
            6.4 Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Mobilisation
            6.5 Effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Participation
            6.6 Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Extended Family Ties

7   Critical Analysis (Conclusions and Recommendations)
            7.1 Introduction
            7.2 Key Findings
            7.2.1 Findings on the Opinions about the Causes of Rural-Urban Migration in Sankana
            7.2.2 Findings on the Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Mobilisation
            7.2.3 Findings on the Effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Participation
            7.2.4 Findings on the Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Extended Family Ties
            7.3 Conclusion
            7.4 Recommendation
            7.4.1 Recommendations on the opinions about the causes of rural-urban migration in Sankana
            7.4.2 Recommendation on effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Mobilisation
            7.4.3 Recommendation on the Effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Community Participation
            7.4.4 Recommendation on Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Extended Family Ties

8 References

1      Introduction

Migration is defined as the movement of people from one geographical location to another for a purpose (National Geography Society, 2005). The process of people migrating to other areas in search of a better life is not a new thinking. However, what has gained recognition is the increasing voluntary movement in quest of quality of life by low-skill and low-wage workers as well as high-skill and high-wage workers from less developed rural areas to more developed urban areas, especially among the poor in the developing countries (Ajaero & Onokala, 2013). According to Bahns (2005), about half of the population in the world resides in cities and urban areas, and the population in cities is hypothesised to be around one million every year. Bahns reiterate that most of these migrants have migrated from other parts of the country, particularly from the rural areas. Adding to Bahns (2005) assertion, Dao (2002) contend that the rate of current urban population growth has reached up to 6% every year in many African countries, including Ghana (Accra), Nigeria (Lagos), and Kenya (Nairobi).

Consequently, one of the most noteworthy demographic phenomena faced by many developing countries is the rapid population growth in the urban centres, largely caused by the prevalence of rural-urban migration (Agesa & Kim, 2001). The occurrence of rural-urban migration is caused by many push factors. According to Ajaero and Onokala (2013), the push factors include the rural-urban inequality in wealth and other opportunities. Ajaero and Mozie (2011) adds that the overwhelming concentration of wealth, assets, purchasing capacity, economic activities, and the variety of services in the urban centres, but lacking in the rural areas are among the causes of rural-urban migration in Africa. In congruence, Afshar (2003) argues that the inadequacy of incomes, lack of gainful employment, coupled with poverty in the rural areas, has pushed people out of their villages in search of better sources of livelihoods in the urban areas.

1.1    Statement of the Problem

In Ghana, migration is particularly crucial because of a long tradition of population mobility and, particularly higher rates of rural–urban migration. Caldwell (1969) in his study found that, migrating from the rural areas to urban towns has been an important part of the farm household livelihood strategy for decades. He adds that, for many Ghanaians, urban life represents new employment opportunities, the possibility of working indoors, modernity and being less tied to family duties, which is different from working mainly on farms, coupled with enormous family responsibilities (Caldwell, 1969). Movement of people in the Northern parts of Ghana (rural area), including the Nadowli-Kaleo District, where Sankana is located to the big cities (southward) has continued unabated. For instance, rural households under the District send out internal migrants for prolonged periods, primarily to the large urban centres in the southern cities of Kumasi and Accra to compete for unavailable jobs. Consequently, these migrants upon arrival becomes vulnerable, as many of them are unskilled and with no formal education (Awumbila & Ardayfio-Schandorf, 2008).

In effect, some tend to leave a deviant lifestyle in order to make a living. Among the unfitting lifestyles, include prostitution, armed robbery, pickpocketing, and increasing crime rate among others (Yang, 2008). Recently, a new dominant north-south migration stream has emerged involving that of females moving independently of their families to the urban centres of Accra and Kumasi (Awumbila & Ardayfio-Schandorf, 2008). Consequently, the majority end up becoming homeless, sleeps in front of peoples’ shops at night and become exposed to rape and malaria, especially the young females and nursing mothers (Issifu, 2015). Dungumaro (2013) concludes that HIV/AIDS is also one of the profound challenges affecting community development upon migrants’ return to the rural areas. It is against this background that Dugbazah (2007) posit that migration is a widespread phenomenon...

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