Title page
Table of contents
Abbreviations Definitions
Glossary and Symbols

Chapter One
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of research problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Hypothesis
1.4       Specific aim and objective

Chapter Two
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Vitamin B12
2.2       Phenyl hydrazine HCL
2.3 Anemia among women
2.3.1 Decrease haemoglobin-Oxygen affinity
2.3.2 Redistribution of blood flow
2.3.3 Increase Cardiac Output
2.4       Classification of anemia
2.4.1 Cytometric classification
2.4.2 Erythrokinetic classification
2.4.3 Reticulocyte counts
2.4.4 Serum heptaglobin concentration
2.4.5 Bone marrow biopsy
2.4.6 Biochemical classification
2.4.7 Macrocytic anemia
2.4.8 Normocytic anemia
2.4.9 Microcytic anemia
2.5.0 Dimorphic anemia
2.5.1 Heinz body
2.5.2 Hyperanemia
2.5.3 Grading of anemia
2.5.4 Causes of anemia
2.5.6 Increase destruction of Red blood cell
2.5.7 Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors
2.5.8 Mechanical trauma of Red cell
2.5.9Autoimmune haemolytic anemia
2.61     Blood loss
2.23     Treatment of anemia
2.24     Anemia and Cardiovascular system
2.25     Anemia and oxygen delivery
2.26     Anemia and haematocrit
2.27     Anemia and cardio-respiratory adjust
2.67     Anemia and cancer
2.6.8Anemia and pregnancy
2.6.9 Anemia and kidney
2.7Anemia and liver
2.8 Portal Circulation and Anemia
2.8.1 Impaired blood coagulation
2.9 Aplastic anemia
2.9.1 Alcohol, liver disease and anemia

Chapter Three
3.0       Materials and Methods
3.1.0 Collection and identification of plant material
3.1.1 Method of extraction
3.1.2 Animals
3 .2 Chemicals
3.3       Acute Toxicity studies
3.4. Experimental design
3.4.1 Induction of anemia
3.4.2 Animal groupings
3.5. Sample collection
3.6       Determination of haemoglobin concentration
3.7       Determination of the pack cell volume
3.8       Biochemical assay
3.9       Determinatoin of Bilirubin concentration
3.6       Statistical analysis

Chapter Four
4.0       Results
4.1       The role of n-butanol leaf fraction of T. Occidentalis on RBC
4.2       The role of n-butanol leaf fraction of T. Occidentalis on WBC
4.3       The role of n-butanol leaf fraction of T. Occidentalis on PCV
4.4       The role of n-butanol leaf fraction of T. Occidentalis on HB
4.5       The role of n-butanol leaf fraction of T Occidentalis on Bil conc

Chapter Five
5.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1       Discussion
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations

Anemia is a serious health problem especially in developing countries. In the tropics, rural dwellers had resort to herbal treatment in some cases of anemia. The main aim of this work was to ascertain the role of n-butanol leaf fraction of Telfairia Occidentalis on some haematological parameters in phenyl hydrazine induced anemia in wistar rats. Thirty (30) adult Wistar rats were used for this study. All animals were assayed for haematological parameters 1day before the onset of the experiment. The animals were grouped into five groups of five rats each (n =5). Anemia was induced in the Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of Phenyl hydrazine Hydrochloride 50mg/kg w/w in DSMO once daily for 3 days. Group i. serves as the negative control group, received 50mg/kg of Phenylhydrazine Hydrochloride and 1ml/kg normal saline (untreated) group ii. serve as Positive control group received Vitamin B12 0.4ml/kg (standard haematinic) intramuscularly,while group iii, iv. and v. received 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg body weight of n-butanol leaf fraction of Telfairia occidentalis for 2 weeks respectively. Asessment of RBC and WBC was carried out using the newly improved Neubauer counting chamber, PCV using the microhaematocrit reader, Hb using the AO-Hb meter and Bilirubin concentration using colorimetric estimation for the serum bilirubin. There was a significant (P<0 .05="" after="" and="" as="" bilirubin="" compared="" concentration="" control="" fraction="" groups="" hb="" in="" increase="" level="" of="" pcv="" rbc="" respectively.="" span="" the="" to="" treatment="" with="" x10="">6/ʯL as compared to 4.78±0.17x106/ʯL), PCV (50.60±0.51% as compared to 37.08±0.37%), HB (16.84±0.18 g/dl as compared to 12.56±0.13 g/dl), WBC (6.10±0.15 x109/L as compared to 6.17±0.88x109/L) and Bilirubin (18.16±0.08a ʯmol/L as compared to 15.54±0.21 ʯmol/L). However, the significant increase obtained from the results of RBC ,PCV and Bilurubin was not dose dependent while that of HB and WBC was dose dependent. In conclusion, Intraperitoneal administration of 50mg/kg Phenylhydrazine hydrochloride for 3days decreases the blood parameters below the pre-anemic level (1day before induction) due to the production of reactive oxygen species. Phytochemical screening of this leaf fraction indicates the presence of flavonoids, saponin secoiridoid glycosides and alkaloids, these natural antioxidants could be responsible for reversing the damaging effect of PHZ and thus playing a modulatory role and also maintaining the integrity of the RBC.

Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development (WHO, 2005).

Anemia is a reduction from the normal quantity of circulating hemoglobin in the blood less than 13 g/dl for male and less than 12 g/dl for female adults (Okochi et al., 2003). It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children (Adam et al., 2005).

Hemolytic anemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of Red Blood Cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular). It has numerous possible causes, ranging from relatively harmless to life-threatening (Telford et al., 2003). The general classification of hemolytic anemia is either inherited or acquired. Treatment depends on the cause and nature of the breakdown (Yamoto et al., 1998).

Anemia is the result of a wide variety of causes that can be isolated, but more often coexist. Globally, the most significant contributor to the onset of anemia is iron deficiency so that IDA and anemia are often used synonymously, and the prevalence of anemia has often been used as a proxy for IDA (De Maeyer, 1989). It is generally assumed that 50% of the cases of anemia are due to iron deficiency, but the proportion may vary among population groups and in different areas according to the local conditions (De Maeyer, 1989).....

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