1.1       Statement of Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Broad objective
1.4       Significance of study

2.1 Intermediate Moisture Meats
2.1.1 Preparation of Intermediate Moisture Meats Formulation Method of Production
2.1.2 Storage Stability of Intermediate Moisture Meats
2.2       Water Sorption Phenomenon in Foods
2.2.1 Water Activity: Definition and Importance in Food Systems
2.2.2 Measurement of Water Activity
2.2.3 Controlled Water Activity Environments
2.3       Moisture Sorption Isotherms
2.3.1 Sorption Isotherm Hysteresis
2.3.2 Effect of temperature on Sorption Isotherms
2.4 Influence of Moisture and Other Factors on Stored Products
2.5       Sorption Models

3.1       Materials
3.2       Methods
3.2.1 Sample Preparation
3.2.2 Formulation of Infusing Solution
3.2.3 Cook-Soak Equilibration
3.2.4 Smoking
3.3       Physicochemical Characteristics
3.3.1 Moisture Determination
3.3.2 Fat Content
3.3.3 Protein Determination
3.3.4 Ash Content Determination
3.3.5 Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
3.3.6 Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) Test
3.3.7 Protein Solubility in SDS-β-Mercapto ethanol solution
3.3.8 Water Activity
3.4       Sensory Evaluation of Samples
3.5       Sorption Experiments
3.5.1 Experimental Temperature
3.5.2 Experimental Water Activities
3.5.3 Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC)
3.5.4 Experimental Design
3.5.5 Experimental Procedure
3.5.6 Sorption Data Analysis
3.6 Statistical Analysis

4.1.1 Moisture Content
4.1.2 Fat Content
4.1.3 Crude Protein Content
4.1.4 Ash Content
4.1.5 pH of Samples
4.1.6 Thiobarbituric Acid Content
4.1.7 Protein Solubility
4.1.8 Water activity
4.2 Sensory Characteristics
4.2.1 Appearance
4.2.2 Texture
4.2.3 Flavour
4.2.4 Taste
4.2.5 General Acceptability
4.3 Moisture Sorption Studies
4.4 Sorption Data Analysis
4.4.1 Oswin Model
4.4.2 Henderson Model
4.4.3 Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) Model
4.4.4 GAB Model
4.4.5 Goodness of Fit Models

5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
5.3       Contribution of the Research Work
5.3.1 The Consumers
5.3.2 The Academic Community
5.3.3 The Food Industry


This research work was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical, sensory and moisture sorption characteristics of intermediate moisture smoked meat products (IMSM). The products were produced by cook-soak equilibration of meat pieces in solutions containing 6 %, 12 % and 18 % glycerol, in addition to salt (2.5), sodium nitrite (0.016 %) and the remainder was water. The 2 cm3 meat pieces were placed in the infusing solution at the rate of 180 g and ratio of 2: 3 (meat: solution) and cooked at 77 oC to an internal temperature of 70 oC for 15 minutes in a water bath, followed by equilibration at room temperature for 16 h. samples were either unsmoked or lightly smoked (4 h) or heavily smoked (18 h) at 60 oC ± 10 oC. A portion of the unsmoked, 4 h and 18 h smoked samples were subjected to physicochemical and sensory quality evaluation while the remainder were used for moisture sorption studies. Equilibrium moisture content was determined gravimetrically at 20 oC, 30 oC and 40 oC by exposing the samples to atmospheres of known relative humidities, using sulfuric acid solutions of 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 % to provide water activities of 0.15 to 0.96. The results showed that the raw meat moisture content to be 77 %. This reduced to 57-66 % on cooking/equilibration and intermediate moisture level of 18.5-24.5 % on 4h smoking and 17.66-18.5 % on 18 h smoking. Water activity followed similar trend (0.74-0.92 after cooking, 0.66-0.85 after 4 h smoking and 0.6-0.75 after 18 h smoking). Both proteins, fat and ash contents increased per unit weight on smoking due to concentration resulting from moisture loss. Protein solubility was high in all samples (76-87 %) while thiobarbituric acid number was low (0.28-0.49 mg malonaldehyde per kg sample) in the smoked samples. Samples smoked for 18 h were ‘moderately liked‘(7.4, 7.3 and 7.5 respectively for samples containing 6 %, 12 % and 18 % glycerol). Samples smoked for 4 h were slightly liked (6.2 and 6.9 respectively for samples containing 6 % and 18 % glycerol). The unsmoked samples were the least liked (5.2, 5.0 and 4.9 respectively for samples containing 6 %, 12 % and 18 % glycerol). The moisture sorption isotherms exhibited sigmoidal shaped curves and the differences between adsorption and desorption processing resulted to hysteresis. Of all models tested, Oswin gave the best fit in terms of percentage root mean square (% RMS) for adsorption and desorption (0.64-4.68 and 0.77-1.69 respectively) compared to Henderson (1.4-9.1 and 1.39-3.89 respectively), Guggenhein Anderson and de-Boar (GAB)(10.86-13.02 and 10.21-11.90 respectively) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET)(5.8-16.13 and 6.42-13.02 respectively). The
values of Mo ranged from 7.5 to 9.5 for adsorptive mode and from 10.9 to 19.6 for desorptive mode.

Using Oswin model % RMS as a guide, it was observed that desorption processing was predicted to give better product stability (average % RMS= 1.19) compared to adsorption (average % RMS= 2.32). Also products were predicted to be more stable at 20 oC storage (average % RMS= 1.2) compared to 30 oC (average % RMS=1.84) and 40 oC (average % RMS= 2.22). Products containing 6 % glycerol would be more stable (average % RMS= 1.63) compared to products containing 12 % glycerol (average % RMS= 1.76) or 18 % glycerol (average % RMS= 1.88).


Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food (Lawrie and Ledward, 2006). It is mainly composed of water and protein and is usually eaten together with other foods. It also contains some vitamins, minerals and calorie source. Adult mammalian muscle flesh consists of roughly 75 % water, 19 % protein, 2.5 % intramuscular fat, 1.2 % carbohydrate and 2.3 % other soluble non-protein substances. These include nitrogenous compounds such as amino acids and inorganic substances such as minerals (Lawrie and Ledward, 2006). Meat consumption varies worldwide, depending on cultural or religious preferences, as well as economic conditions. Vegetarians choose not to eat meat because of ethical, economic, environmental, and religious or health concerns that are associated with meat production and consumption.

Traditionally, in Nigeria, fresh meat is pre-cooked in water without adding any ingredients, spices or preservatives and hot smoked to yield hard, desiccated and sometimes brittle products. Thus, the products are of low aesthetic and organoleptic quality (Okonkwo, 1987). The quality of the products could probably be improved by intermediate moisture meat processing techniques. Obanu (1981) observed that intermediate moisture meats (IMM) are shelf stable under the tropical climate without refrigeration and may be eaten directly with or without rehydration. Hollis et al. (1968) defined intermediate moisture meats (IMM) as products which are partially dehydrated but contain enough solids to bind the remaining water and make it unavailable for microbial growth and physico-chemical reactions. Ogunsola and Omojola (2008) stated that intermediate moisture meat is used to describe meat products that have less than 30 % of moisture. The term “intermediate moisture food” has been used to identify heterogeneous groups of foods which resemble dry foods in that they are resistant to bacterial spoilage but contain too.....

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