For more Biological Sciences Project click here


Title Page
Table of Contents

1.1       Background
1.2       Statement of Research Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       Aim of the Study
1.5       Objectives
1.6       Hypotheses

2.1       Species of Parasitic Organisms Producing Contaminative Cysts, Oocysts and Ova in the Environment
2.1.1    Protozoa
2.1.2    Helminths
2.2       Prevalence of Parasites with Cysts, Oocysts and Ova
2.2.1    Protozoa
2.2.2    Helminths
2.3       Factors Promoting the Occurrence and Viability of Parasites’ Cysts and Ova in the Environment
2.3.1    Environmental insanitation
2.3.2    Poor personal hygiene
2.3.3    Socio-economic factors
2.3.4    Age of Host
2.4       Prevalence, Intensity and Distribution of Parasites’ Cysts and Ova in Diverse Environmental Surfaces
2.4.1    Fruits and vegetables
2.4.2    Sachet water
2.4.3    Paper currency
2.4.4    Computer accessories
2.4.5    Human peri-domestic environment
2.5       Pathogenicity and Medical Importance of Parasites with Cysts and Ova
2.5.1    Protozoa
2.5.2    Helminths
2.6       Intensity of Parasite’s Cysts and Ova in Human

3.1       Study Area
3.2       Selection of Banks for the Study
3.3       Sampling Points
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sample Collection and Preservation
3.6       Preliminary Processing and Storage of Samples
3.7       Parasitological Assay of Samples
3.8       Identification of Parasites’ Stages
3.9       Statistical Analysis of Data

4.0       RESULTS
4.1       Species of Parasitic Organisms with Cysts, Oocysts and Ova on Bank Facilities
4.2       Types and Diversity of Bank Facilities on which Cysts, Oocysts and Ova of Parasites Occurred
4.3       Intensities of cysts, oocysts and ova of parasites among bank facilities and banks

5.0       DISCUSSION

6.1       Conclusion
6.2       Recommendation


Species of parasitic organisms whose cysts, oocysts and ova occurred on specific commercial banks' facilities and intensities of contamination were evaluated via environmental parasitological assays in the three towns of Benue State, Northcentral Nigeria. Eighteen (18) of the common commercial banks (six per town) with wide branch network in the state, that consented, were selected on random ballot and screened for resistant stages of parasitic organisms on twelve facilities-door handles(inner and outer handles), automated teller machines (ATMs)(down and upper instruction knobs), computer accessories (keyboards and mouse), Currency (paper and polymer notes), counting machines (cash loader and cash receiver) and counter/slab surfaces(banking hall and bulk room). Sterile cotton swabs wetted with sterile normal saline were used to swab the surfaces of interest at the designated banks, preserved in refrigerated capped universal bottles containing 10ml each of normal saline and 4% formalin and thereafter subjected to both the centrifugal sedimentation and Zinc sulphate floatation techniques to isolate parasite stages. Of the 396 facilities screened, the cysts/oocysts of seven parasitic protozoans were isolated, including Entamoeba histolytica 251/396 (63.38%),

Cryptosporidium species 155/396 (39.14%), Entamoeba coli 44/396 (11.11%), Giardia intestinalis 33/396 (8.33%), Balantidium coli 9/396 (2.27%), Cyclospora species 7/396 (1.77%) and Isospora species 2/396 (0.51%). Ova of eight species of parasitic helminths encountered on the screened facilities included those of Ascaris lumbricoides 106/396 (26.77%), Trichuris trichiura 15/396 (3.79%), hookworm 14/396 (3.54%), Taenia species 14/396 (3.54%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 6/396 (1.52%), Capillaria species 3/396 (0.76%), Enterobius vermicularis 2/396 (0.51%), Toxocara canis 2/396 (0.51%).

Up to 304 (76.80%) of the six bank facility types were positive with cysts/oocysts of at least three of the seven protozoan parasites while 138 (34.8%) of the facilities were positive with ova of at least four of the eight helminth parasites. The study established that bank facilities are repositories of resistant stages of important zoonotic human and veterinary parasites thus highlighting their potential roles as contaminative transmission sources and public health risks.


1.0                                                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1              Background

Parasites are organisms that live upon or within another living organism known as the host, at whose expense they obtain some advantages such as food, water, heat, habitat and dispersal as well as shelter, and in the process increase their fitness by exploiting the host for resources necessary for their survival (Blood and Virginia, 1988). Parasites reduce hosts‘ fitness in many ways, ranging from general or specialised pathology such as parasitic castration and impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behaviour (Blood and Virginia, 1988).

According to Kathleen and Arthur (2002), intestinal parasites occur worldwide among all human ages and socioeconomic groups. In the 1993 World Development Report, intestinal helminthes rank first as the main cause of disease burden in children aged 5 – 14 years where they constitute formidable health problems resulting in malnutrition, anaemia and disturbed appetite. These may ultimately result in retarded physical and cognitive development in children. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that helminth infections affect around 2 billion people among whom 5-10% are children, as a result of the ingestion of the cysts and ova of parasites (WHO, 2008). Parasites have been identified as the cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world particularly in underdeveloped countries and in persons with comorbidities (Adeyeba and Akinlabi, 2002). It is known that individuals often exposed to and infected with multiple parasitic.....

For more Biological Sciences Project click here

This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679
After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions

Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts