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1.1       Problem Statements
1.2       Justifications
1.3       Aim and Objectives
1.4       Research Scopes

2.1       Classification of Paints
2.1.1 Emulsion paint
2.1.2 Gloss paint
2.2       Composition of Paints
2.2.1 Binders Convertible binders Non-Convertible binders Alkyd resin
2.2.2 Pigments Classification of pigments
2.2.3 Solvents Hydrocarbon Solvents Oxygenated solvents Chlorinated solvents
2.2.4 Additives
2.3       Paint Formulation Process
2.4       Hazards  Associated  with  Paint  Formulations  and  it  Preventive Measures
2.4.1 Preventive measures
2.5       Physico-Chemical Analysis of Paint
2.5.1 Viscosity measurement
2.5.2 Density test
2.5.3 pH test
2.5.4 Drying time ASTM test method of drying time
2.6Physico-Mechanical Analysis
2.6.1 Film thickness
2.6.2 Gloss (Opacity) analysis
2.6.3 Chemical resistance
2.6.4 Punch test
2.6.5 Cross-scratch test
2.6.6 Colour stability
2.7 Modelling of Experimental Formulation
2.7.1 Response surface methodology (RSM) Fitting of model analysis
2.8 Self-Healing Coating Polymers
2.8.1 Benefit of self-healing coatings Intrinsic self-healing Self-healing based on physical interactions Self-healing based on chemical interactions
2.8.2 Extrinsic self-healing

3.1 Materials and Equipment
3.2 Methodology
3.2.1 Source of raw materials
3.2.2 Experimental design
3.2.3 Paint formulation procedure
3.2.4 Paint viscosity measurement
3.2.5 Density test
3.2.6 pH measurement
3.2.7 Preparation of plates for spray
3.2.8 Drying time and coverage responses determination
3.2.9. Analysis of the applied paints on substrates
3.2.10 Spraying of the substrates Gloss test Film thickness test Cross-scratch test Punch test Chemical resistance test Heat resistance test
3.3 Self-Healing Car Paint Formulation
3.3.1 Investigation of self-healing property of the paint on coated substrates
3.3.2 Fourier transform infrared analysis

4.1       Effect of Component Proportioning on Viscosity of Formulated Paint
4.2       Effect of Component Proportioning on Density of Formulated Paint
4.3       Effect of Component Proportioning on pH of Formulated Paint
4.4       Physico-Mechanical Analysis
4.4.1 Gloss (opacity) test
4.4.2Film thickness test
4.4.3Cross-scratch test
4.4.4Punch test
4.4.5Chemical resistance test
4.4.6 Heat resistance/colour stability test
4.5 Drying Time and Coverage Responses
4.6 Drying Time and Coverage Mathematical Models
4.7 Statistical Analysis for Drying Time and Coverage
4.7.1Drying time response
4.7.2 Coverage response
4.8 Predicted and Actual Drying Time and Coverage Relationship
4.9   3D-Surface  Plots  of  Variable  Parameters  and  Responses  Studied (Drying Time and Coverage)
4.10 Optimized Solutions from the Simulated Responses
4.11 Self-Healing Property of Chitosan Investigation on the Formulated Paint       
4.12 Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)



Car surfaces are vulnerable to scratches from environmental conditions, thereby prompting car users to visit car workshop for re-spray. This process does not usually bring permanent solution to scratches on car surfaces since they are often re-spray with non-self-healing paint. The aim of this work was to develop self-healing car paint. In doing this, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to obtain an optimum paint formulation which was then improved into a self-healing car paint by incorporating chitosan into the formulation, sprayed on substrates, allowed to dry, scratched with a pin, exposed with UV light from the sun and then investigated for self-healing using scanning electron microscope (SEM).

The model developed for drying time and coverage responses using (ANOVA) in the RSM study were significant as their respective "Prob > F" values were less than 0.0500 with R2 values 0.8693 and 0.9204 respectively. The “lack of fit” in both cases were not significant which is desirable in statistical analysis of this nature. Physico-chemical analysis (viscosity, density and pH) were done on the 20-runs of formulated paint where runs 1, 3, 7, 8 and 13 had the best density values of 0.956 g/cm3, 0.977g/cm3, 0.875 g/cm3, 0.896 g/cm3 and 0.944 g/cm3respectively as compared to other runs. Runs 1, 3, 7, 8 and 13 viscosity values fall within range of “30±5 cp”,(ASTM, 2009; PAN, 2013) standard specification for car paint. The pH values of the twenty runs were in the range of 6.6 to 6.9.

The physico-chemical test performance of runs 1, 3, 7, 8 and 13 was a criteria for their selection to undergophysico-mechanical test, in which run 8 among the other runs selected had the optimum performance in terms of gloss, film thickness, cross-scratch, punch, chemical resistance, heat resistance and colour stability tests as its results agreed closely to ASTM/PAN car paint standard specifications.The SEM analysis done on the coated substrates showed that chitosan has self-healing effect.


1.0              INTRODUCTION

The surfaces of any object is vulnerable as it often makes continual contact with the corroding (or oxidizing) air, most especiallywhen left in an open place, thereby bear the brunt of the sun, rain,fug, dew and snow (Rodger, 2008). Thus, under these conditions, the surfaces tend to rust, disintegrate, corrode and crackresulting to wear of daily use.However, these effects can be prevented or managed with various surface coating medium such as wallpapers, plastic sheet, chrome, silver plating and paint which have being identified and applied to decorate and smooth out any surface roughness or irregularities (Jonathan, 2009). Paint is commonly used as compared to other surface coating due to its ease of application, maintenance and versatility (Jonathan, 2009).

Paint is defined as an engineered material made of several ingredients such as resin, solvent, pigments and additives that are mixed together to create a specific product with its own unique properties (Rodger, 2008). It is classified based on purposes and area of applications. A paint whose diluent of formulation and medium of cleanliness is solvent is refers to as „gloss paint. This type of paint can be formulated for car surface coating, refinery equipment coating, road marking purposes, varnishes and so on (Rodger, 2008; Alirezaet al., 2009). While a water base paint is term as an emulsion paint which can be applied for architectural building (Michael, 2005; Rodger, 2008). It can be formulated from four major components, be it solvent base or water base type(Michael, 2005). These components are resin (binder), pigments (sometimes in conjunction with extenders), solvent and additives (Rodger,2008).

Paint has been in existence for decades and there are standard formulation for its high quality, though there are no much published work on its detail experimental apart from the general knowledge of its product, this may be due to the products being mostly.....

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