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Title Page
Table of Contents

1.1       Preamble
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Justification of the Study
1.4       Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.5       Scope of the Study

2.1.      Copper Ore Type and World Deposits
2.2.      Some Nigerian Copper Ore Deposits
2.3 Previous Work done on Some Nigerian Copper Ore Deposits
2.4.  Mineral  Processing  Conceptual Parameters for the Development of a Process Route for a Newly Discovered Ore
2.5. Mineral Processing Techniques
2.5.1. Comminution Process
2.5.2. Size Analysis
2.5.3. Liberation Size
2.5.4. Work Index
2.6. Concentration Processes
2.6.1. Ore sorting
2.6.2. Gravity concentration
2.6.3. Froth Flotation
2.6.4. Magnetic Separation and Electrostatic Separation
2.7. Analytical Methods Used in Metallurgical Analysis and Characterization
2.7.1. Microscopic Properties of Mineral and the Petrographic Microscope
2.7.2. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
2.7.3. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
2.7.4. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
2.8. Azara Copper Ore Deposit
2.8.1 Location of Project Area
3.1 Equipment and Materials Used
3.2 Methods
3.2.1 Sample Collection
3.2.2. Laboratory Sampling and Preparation
3.2.3. Physical Observation
3.2.4 Determination of the Hardness of the Ore
3.2.5 Determination of Specific Gravity (Relative Density)
3.2.6 Determination of Electrical conductivity
3.2.8. Determination of the Chemical Composition of the Ore
3.2.9. Mineralogical Analysis of the Ore Preparation Procedures of Rock Section for Petrological Analysis
3.2.10. Sieve Analysis and Liberation Studies
3.2.11. Determination of Work Index

4.1       Physico - Chemical Properties of the Ore
4.1.1    The Specific Gravity Test of the Ore
4.1.2.   Electrical Property of the Ore
4.2       Chemical Characterization of the Ore Sample
4.2.1    Determination of the Chemical Composition of the Ore
4.2.2    Mineralogical Characterization of the Azara Copper Ore Sample
4.2.3.   Petrological Analysis
4.3       Sieve Analysis and Liberation Studies
4.4       Determination of Work index

5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation


The characterization of Azara copper ore was carried out. The samples were collected from three different locations in Azara, Awe Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The physical observation shows that the ore has metallic lustre, dark bronze with greenish stripe and irregular or uneven breakages. The results obtained from physical analysis of the ore reveals that it has hardness of 3.5 on Moh’s hardness scale, the specific gravity of 4.40 and electrical conductivity of8.096 × 10−7Ω−1 −1. The XRF analysis of the sample reveals that the ore contains18.07% Fe, 3.30% Cu, 0.78% Pb, 0.48% Mn, 1.43% Ca, 0.66%Sn, 0.03%Sr, 0.11%Zn, 0.03%Zr, 0.34%Ti, 0.02%Nb, 0.03%Sb, 0.03%Ag, 0.07%As, 19.62%Si and 1.66%S. The mineralogical analysis of copper ore using XRD reveals that the ore containsanatase, zincite, chalcopyrite, hopeite, hematite, goethite, calcite, tenrite and pyrite. The result of SEM/EDS analysis reveals that the copper bearing minerals are separated from other minerals in the ore by smooth grains boundaries and are not locked with other minerals, hence, making it easy to free the copper from other associated minerals by comminution. The particle size sieves analyses reveals that the assays of the copper mineral are as follows:1.85% Cu in 355 + 250 , 0.43% Cu in 250 + 180 , 2.35% Cu in 180 + 125 , 1.9% Cu in 125 + 90 , 6.53% Cuin 90 + 50 and 6.73% Cuin 50 .The liberation size of the ore was found to be below50 and the work Index of the ore was determined using the modified Bond method (Barry and Bruce method) and found to be 12.989kWh/tonne and classified as type B orewith soft medium texture using the Mathurgrindability chart. Hence the Azara copper ore could be seen as another potential source of copper mineral that can be beneficiated and utilized for the production of copper metal and alloys for the nation metallurgical industry.


1.0.                                                                            INTRODUCTION

1.1. Preamble

In view of the desire of Nigeria to become one of the twenty leading economies in the world, there is a need to diversify the economic base of the nation. The mineral sector has the capacity to increase the fortune and create more jobs, thereby, enhancing industrial growth. It has been established that Nigeria is endowed with mineral resources; both metallic and non-metallic. However, the nature of these mineral types in a deposit ought to be established in order to facilitate the downstream concentration processes and production of high grade concentrate for extraction and utilization in metallurgical industries. These processes are no doubt relative to the nature of the composition, for example copper's existence as chalcopyrite (CuFeS2), chalcocite (Cu2S), covellite (CuS), malachite (CuCO3.Cu(OH)2), cuprite (Cu2O), etc. is a typical case (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014).

The extraction of specific valuable minerals from their naturally occurring ores is variously termed as “ore dressing” “mineral dressing” and “minerals beneficiation”. For most metalliferrous ores produced by mining operations, beneficiation is an important intermediate step in the transformation of natural ore to pure metal.Therefore, it is imperative that the key to successful beneficiation of an ore is greatly attached to the amount of information available on the nature and properties of the various components making up the ore. In order to achieve this, adequate chemical and mineralogical studies of an ore must be carried out (Craig and Vaughan, 1981).

According to data compiled by the International Copper Study Group (ICSG) in 2012, global consumption of refined copper in 2011 rose by 2.7% (500,000 tonnes) to 19.9 million metric......

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