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Table of Contents

1.0       Introduction
1.1       The Research Problem
1.2       Aim
1.3       Objectives
1.4       Scope of the study
1.5       Background to the study area

2.1       Introduction
2.2       Concept of sanitation and sanitary facility
2.2.1    Sanitation: An Overview
2.2.2    Importance of sanitation
2.2.3    Behaviour of people when nature calls in developing countries: Examples of bad practice
2.3       Public Toilets
2.3.1    The need for public toilets
2.3.2    Flush and discharge
2.3.3    When and where public toilets should come in place
2.3.4    Design and management consideration of public toilets
2.4       Detailed design consideration of public sanitation facility
2.4.1    Immediate Environment
2.4.2   Internal Design of Public Sanitation Facility
2.4.3   Fitout of Public Sanitation Facility
2.5.0   Potential problems and misuse of public toilets
2.6.0   Public toilets in developing countries- case studies
2.6.1   Public toilets in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya
2.6.2   Public toilets in Kano, Nigeria
2.6.3 Public Private Partnerships in Ghana
2.6.4   Dignified mobile toilets system in Lagos, Nigeria
2.7.0    Provisioning and management of public conveniences in the FCC    Abuja
2.8.0    Abuja Sewerage Master Plan
2.8.1    Number of sewage treatment plants
2.8.2    Procedure for applying and obtaining public toilets development approvals in Abuja, phase 1.

3.0       Research Approach
3.1       Data Collection Instruments
3.1.1    Use of questionnaire
3.1.2    Use of interview manual
3.1.3    Use of field manual
3.2       Data Collection Procedure
3.2.1    Questionnaire Application Sample frame Sample size Sampling procedure
3.3       Techniques of data analysis

4.1       Pattern of distribution of conveniences
4.2       Quality of facilities
4.2.1    Source(s) of Water
4.2.2    Size of cubicles
4.2.3    Floor to ceiling height
4.2.4    Excreta disposal method
4.2.5    Facing Design and Material Use
4.2.6    Level of Hygiene of the facilities
4.3       Adequacy of public conveniences
4.4       Accessibility of public conveniences
4.5       Safety of Public Conveniences
4.6       Problems and challenges of sanitary facilities in Garki district

5.0       Summary
5.1       Recommendations
5.1.1    General Recommendation
5.1.2    Specific Recommendation Shopping Areas Motor Parks Market Places Recreational Areas Religious Places
5.2       Conclusion


Public sanitary facilities are crucial infrastructure necessary for the social well-being and practical operation of a functioning city. Human dignity is directly linked to access the safety and hygienic sanitation and this formed one of the strongest indicator of a near perfect city. The research focuses on assessing the adequacy and maintenance of sanitary facilities in Garki districts. Garki as one of the pioneer district in Abuja metropolis, has housed many public institutions like schools, churches, mosques, major shopping centres, motor parks, markets and recreational areas without a decent or functional sanitary facilities. Data for this research were obtained from field using reconnaissance survey, user satisfaction survey and the use of questionnaires. Findings revealed that public sanitary facilities in these institutions in Garki district are inadequate and substandard in some institutions while in others they are adequate but lack maintenance. In line with the finding, some existing ones are reserved for the VIPs. The research recommend that the authorities concerned should provide more toilet facilities and upgrade those presently available. There should be serious enlightenment to the public on the impending dangers of campaign about the effect of lack of safety and hygienic sanitation and the and also there should be an effective management of public sanitary facilities in FCC Abuja with specific reference to Garki district.



1.0              INTRODUCTION

Public sanitary facilities are crucial infrastructure necessary for the social well-being and practical operation of a city. The provision of public sanitary facilities has implications for public and individual health, transportation, crime preventions, urban design, economic and cultural development and social equity. Public Conveniences i.e. Toilets, Bathrooms, Urinals and Comfort rooms are provided largely in public places and institutions. These places include Markets, Motor Parks, Religious institutions, Mosques, Churches, Filling stations, Hospitals, Airports, Sporting grounds, Schools etc. The right of citizenship access to appropriate public toilets emerged in the west with the rise of modernity.

Prior to the period of enlightenment in Britain, urinating, and defecating was a public act, taking place not only in fields and gardens, but also in the streets. By the mid 19th century however, public toilets were built using the public purse to provide citizens the means to urinate or defecate in public while away from home. It is a long time however since Britain led the world with such public health foresight. In most African cities, public conveniences are lacking in terms of quality and quantity, thus residents and visitors are often left wondering where to "go". There is therefore a real quality of life crisis looming for all of us – especially the young and older members of society. There is a real concern about both the quantity and quality of public conveniences provision in Abuja and the associated problems this causes for the residents and visitors to the city......

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