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1.1 Background
1.2 Problem Statement
1.3 Relevance to Public Health
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 General Objective and Specific Objectives
1.5.1 General Objective
1.5.2 Specific Objectives

2.1 Enterobacteriaceae
2.2 Escherichia coli
2.3.1 Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)
2.3.2 Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)
2.3.3 Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC)
2.3.3 Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) or Vero cytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC)
2.3.4 Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
2.3.5 Diffuse Adherent E. coli (DAEC)
2.3.6 Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)
2.3.7 Septicaemia and Meningitis
2.3.8 Infections in Chickens
2.3.9 Indicator Bacteria
2.4 Epidemiology of E. coli Resistance
2.5 Chickens as Reseviors of E.coli in Humans
2.6 Genetic Mechanisms of Resistance in E. coli
2.6.1 Plasmids
2.6.2 Transposons
2.6.3 Integrons
2.7 Major Antimirobial Classes used in Entrobacterial Infections
2.7.1 Beta Lactams
2.7.2 Quinolones
2.7.3 Aminoglycosides
2.7.4 Tetracyclines
2.7.5 Sulphonamides
2.7.6 Phenicols
2.7.7 Macrolides
2.7.8 Future Directions
2.8 Antimicrobial in Animal Agriculture
2.8.1 Antimicrobials use in Animals
2.8.2 Use Antimicrobials of in Poultry Production
2.8.3 Acquired Resistance
2.8.4 Cross Resistance
2.8.5 Live Bird Markets
2.8.6 Poultry Production System
2.9 Knowledge and Practices

3.1       Study Area
3.2 Study Design
3.3 Study Population
3.4 Sample Size Determination
3.5 Sampling Technique
3.6 Study Instruments
3.7 Data Collection and Management
3.8 Laboratory Methods
3.8.1 Isolation and Identification of E. coli Strains
3.8.2 Biochemical Tests
3.8.3 Microbact 12E
3.8.4 Evaluation of in Vitro Susceptibility of Identified Isolates to Antimicrobial Agents
3.9       Ethical Consideration



6.1 Conclusion
6.2 Recommendations


Escherichia coli is one of the most important food borne microorganisms that cause disease in animals and humans worldwide. Not all strains cause disease, but they are useful for testing of contamination of food and water and have been adopted as indicator organism for antimicrobial drug resistance among commensal gram-negative organisms. Antimicrobial drug resistance is associated with inappropriate use of veterinary antimicrobials in food animals especially in poultry production. LBM is a place located in markets in urban settlements where birds are housed and sold to the public. Poultry vendors try to keep their birds healthy through the use of antimicrobials. Hence, the need to study the resistance in E. coli isolated from these birds. Apparently healthy local chickens sold for food at live bird markets in Yola North and Yola South LGAs were examined for E. coli and their resistance to eight important antimicrobials. E. coli (n= 56) were isolated using Eosine Methylene Blue (EMB) and identified with conventional biochemical tests. Microbact 12 E was used to confirm 49 of the 56 isolates to be E. coli. In addition, knowledge and practices of the poultry vendors in LBMs about antimicrobials use was assessed. The results were as follows: 95.8% of the poultry vendors in LBM had not attended any formal training on poultry production and health, and 79.2% did not keep records of drugs they use. Hygiene score for cages showed 79% of cages were mildly contaminated/ dusty, 54% of drugs they used were purchased from the open markets without prescription and 68% of poultry vendors used their experience to determine the dosage for treatment of their birds. Only 10.4% of vendors consulted a veterinarian for the health needs of their poultry; 56% of poultry vendors did not practice hand washing and 98% did not use protective clothing such as coveralls. All the 49 E. coli isolates were resistant to Ceftiofur (100%), Erythromycin (100%) and Sulfamethoxazole (100%). The Percent resistance to other drugs were as follows:

Nalidixic acid (69.4%), Ciproflaxin (67.3%), Tetracycline (67.3%), Chloramphenicol (49%), and Gentamicin (34.7%). All the isolates were multi drug resistant showing 16 different patterns with each isolate being resistant to at least four drugs. The high prevalence of resistance among commensal E. coli in local chickens could be a significant source of resistance genes to other bacteria that share the same environment which could also be a source of direct contamination of poultry meat and LBM workers.



1.1 Background

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem caused by inappropriate use of antimicrobials. In veterinary medicine, AMR is considered both from a human health perspective and from the perspective of protection of animal health and welfare and the environment. This leads to concerns about a number of important impacts in the area of public health, medical care, financial resources and food safety.1 Since the introduction of antimicrobials as drugs against bacterial infections in humans and then veterinary medicine, AMR has been recognized as an existing phenomenon.2,3 However, there is an increased occurrence of AMR in bacteria4. These concerns have been raised locally, nationally and internationally.5 During the past decade, the emergence of drug resistant E. coli has dramatically increased. Consequently, the management of E. coli infections in both humans and animals that was previously straight forward has become more complicated. The risk of treatment failure is higher and cost of treatment increasing.6,7

Inappropriate antimicrobial use in veterinary and human medicine is considered the most important factor promoting the emergence, selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. 8 Antimicrobials usage selects for resistance not only in pathogenic bacteria but also in non-pathogenic commensals. These commensals could serve as reservoirs for resistance determinants that could be transferred to other bacteria in the same ecosystem and as indicator organism for resistance among bacterial population.9,10
Antimicrobials are used in agriculture as in humans to control bacterial infections.......

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