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Title Page
Table of Content

1.0       Background to the Study
1.1       Statement of the Problem
1.2       Objectives of the Study
1.3       Hypotheses of the Study
1.4       Justification for the Study

2.1       Cassava Empowerment
2.2       Women Empowerment in Cassava Production and Processing
2.3       RTEP as a Source of Women Empowerment in Nigeria
2.4       Empowering Rural Women for Sustainable Food Security
2.4       Introduction, Spread and Importance of Cassava
2.6       Women and Cassava processing
2.7       Traditional Methods for Processing Cassava
2.8       Constraints in the Traditional Processing of Cassava
2.8.1    Environmental Factors
2.8.2    Varietal Factors
2.8.3    Agronomic Factors
2.8.4    Socioeconomic Factors
2.9       Women’s Response to Selected Cassava Production Technology in Nigeria
2.10     Poverty and Poverty Alleviation
2.11     Measurement of Poverty
2.11.1  Double Difference Method
2.12     Women Empowerment Activities Given By RTEP
2.13RTEP Women Empowerment Activities

3.1       Description of the Study Area
3.2       Sampling Procedure
3.3       Data Collection
3.4       Analytical Techniques
3.4.1    Descriptive Statistics
3.4.2    Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty measures
3.4.3Tobit Model for Intensity of Cassava Production and Processing
3.4.4 Double Difference Estimator for Income, Productivity and Poverty Status of Farmers and Processors (Participants and Non-Participants) Multiple Regression Analysis
3.4.5    Two Sample t-test for Test of Hypotheses
3.5       Variable Definition and Measurement

4.4.1    Age Distribution of Cassava Farmers
4.4.2    Level of Education of Cassava Farmers
4.4.3    Major Occupation of Cassava Farmers
4.4.4    Secondary Occupation of Cassava Farmers
4.4.5    Cassava Enterprise of Cassava Farmers
4.4.6    Extension Contact of Cassava Farmers
4.4.7    Farming Experience of Cassava Farmers
4.4.8    Years of Participation of Cassava Farmers
4.4.8    Farm Size of Cassava Farmers
4.2 Socio- Economic Characteristics of Cassava Processors
4.2.1    Age Distribution of Cassava Processors
4.2.2    Level of Education of Cassava Processors
4.2.3    Major and Secondary Occupation of Cassava Processors
4.2.4    Cassava Enterprise of Cassava Processors
4.2.5    Extension Visits of Cassava Processors
4.2.6    Years of Participation of Cassava Processors
4.3       Factors Influencing the Intensity of Cassava Production
4.3.1    Factors Influencing the Intensity of Cassava Processing
4.4       Poverty Status for (Cassava Farmers) Participants and Non-Participants of RTEP
4.4.1    Poverty Status for (Cassava Processors) Participants and Non-Participants of RTEP
4.4.2    Impact of Empowering Cassava Women Farmers on their Income, Productivity and Poverty Status
4.4.3    Impact of Empowering Cassava Women Processors on Income, Productivity and Poverty Status
4.4.4    Effect of Participation in Empowerment Programme on Farmers‟ Income Productivity and Poverty Status
4.4.5    Effect of Participation in Empowerment Programme on Processors ‟Income, Productivity and Poverty Status
4.4.6    Test of Hypotheses
4.5       Constraints associated with Women Empowerment in the Study Area

5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusions
5.3       Contribution to Knowledge
5.4       Recommendations


This study is focused on the analysis of women empowerment in cassava production and processing as a means of household poverty status in Kwara State, Nigeria. Women in Kwara State were empowered by RTEP inorder to improve their living standard and there was therefore the need to evaluate the impact of the programme on the women‟s income, productivity and poverty status.Primary data were collected from the farmers and processors who were participants or non-participants in Root and Tuber Expansion Programme (RTEP) through the use of structured questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to select the LGAs and villages, while random sampling was used to select the respondents and 12%(199) of the sample frame was used for this study. Tools for analyses were descriptive statistics such as frequency, tables, percentages, FGT, double difference estimators and multiple regressions. The results of the analysis showed that mean age for participants and non-participants farmers were 40 and 37 years and the mean age for participant and non-participant processors were 40 and 39 years respectively. Results of intensity of cassava production revealed that factors such as age(p<0 .001="" 0.02="" 0.05="" 0.07="" 0.14="" 0.17="" 0.19="" 1="" 23.88="" 27.87="" 32.65="" 57.64="" 5="" about="" acted="" after="" agents="" agro-chemicals="" alleviated.="" also="" an="" and="" are="" areas="" at="" be="" before="" both="" by="" can="" capital="" cassava="" conclusion="" constraint="" depth="" difference="" double="" due="" empowerment="" encountered="" established="" estimates="" estimators="" extension="" farmers="" fgt="" followed="" for="" from="" government="" had="" high="" impacted="" improvement="" in="" inadequate="" incidenceso="" income="" increase="" increases="" indicating="" influenced="" influences="" intensity="" it="" levels="" major="" market="" mean="" more="" non-participant="" non-participants="" noted="" occupation="" of="" on="" p="" participant="" participants="" participated="" participation="" percentage="" poor="" positive="" positively="" poverty="" price="" probability="" problems="" processing.="" processing="" processors.="" processors="" produce.="" production="" productivity="" programme.="" programme="" programmes="" recommended="" regression="" results="" revealed="" rtep="" severity="" should="" showed="" significant="" significantly="" span="" statistically="" status.="" status="" that="" the="" their="" themultiple="" there="" therefore="" thisindicates="" those="" thus="" time="" to="" together="" training="" values="" variables="" visits="" was="" were="" when="" where="" which="" while="" who="" with="" women="" years="">



1.1    Background to the study

Women can be described as an indispensible group in the development of any nation (Safiya, 2011). Women play significant and potentially transformative roles in agricultural growth in developing countries, but they face unrelenting obstacles and economic constraints limiting further contribution in agriculture.Women are responsible, in addition to seeking livelihoods, for keeping their homes and providing for their children (Lawanson,2003). Women have great potentials necessary to evolve a new economic order, to accelerate social and political development and consequently transform the society into a better one (Safiya, 2011). Kayodeet al., (2013) described Nigerian women as a crucial factor for production. According to him, they assume this status because they are largely responsible for the bulk of crops production, agro-based food processing, preservation of crops and distribution of outputs or products from farm centers to urban areas. The importance of women in the agricultural development as stated above cannot be overemphasized and this has led to the empowerment of more women in production and processing of various crops such as Cassava, maize and yam. The Government in collaboration with other private bodies has helped to empower women in order to improve their standard of living. Empowering women can mean the provision of sufficient opportunities to women to develop their potentials and contribute to the overall development of the nation. Empowering women particularly in the area of agriculture has been done using cassava which is a low risk crop with high yielding potential and a developed market for its sales.Cassava has been identified as a very powerful poverty fighter by driving down the price of food to millions of consumers (Iheke, 2008). Cassava....

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