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Title Page
Table of Contents

Chapter One
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Research Problem
            Research Question
1.3       Aim
1.4       Objectives
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope and Limitation
1.7       Definitions of Terms

Chapter Two
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Concept of Tourism
2.3       Types of Tourism
2.4       The Roles of Tourism in Economic Development
2.5       Overview of Tourism Development in Nigeria
2.6       Places of Attraction in Kaduna
2.7       Determinants of Tourism Habits
2.8       Effect of Socio Economic characteristics
2.9       Global Patterns of Tourism
2.10     Constraints to Tourism Participation
2.11     Lesson Learned in Literatures

Chapter Three
3.0       Methodology
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       The Study Area
3.4       Relevant Data and Sources
3.5       Survey Instrument
3.6       Sampling Frame and Size
3.7       Sampling Technique
3.8       Data Analysis
3.9       Significance Level
3.10     Chi-Square Test

Chapter Four
4.0       Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Characteristics of Tourism Patterns of Respondent
4.3       Determinants of Tourism Habits
4.4       Analysis of the Constraints to Tourism Participation

Chapter Five
5.0       Summary of Findings, Conclusion, Implication of Findings and Recommendations
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary of Findings
5.3       Major Findings
5.4       Implications of Findings
5.5       Conclusion
5.6       Recommendations


The research aims at determining the effects of socio-economic characteristics as well as the level of participation of the residents in Kaduna metropolis in tourism with a view of identifying the hindering factors that determines their tourism habits and making recommendations for suitable tourism participation. A structured questionnaire was designed, validated and administered through cluster sampling procedure. The review of literature was made on determinants of tourism and its inter-related activities. The results from the analysis of the data provided by the respondents revealed that the residents were involved more in local travels as compared to international tours. From the test of association between selected variables with tourism habits, variables like ethnic group, religious affiliation, financial capability, work schedule were the significant determinants of tourism habits among the residents to improve tourism participation, the study outlined some recommendations which included; funding by Government through creation and implementation of policies that will support tourism participation financially, construction and maintenance of good roads, improved security, awareness programmes on the importance of tourism and its participation.


1.0              Introduction

Tourism is defined as a composite of activities, services, and industries that delivers a travel experience to individuals and groups travelling fifty miles (about eighty kilometres) or more from their homes for purposes of pleasure. Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourismand touristare sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

In recent times tourism is one of the largest industries that has contributed to the socio-economic growth of many countries especially countries were tourism is the main stay of her economy, World Tourism Organization (WTO, 1998) However, despite the fact that that.....

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