## A SCHEDULING ALGORITHM FOR MINIMIZING THE PENALTY RATIO VARIANCE

Abstract
List of Abbreviations

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Research Questions
1.3 Motivation of the Study
1.4 Aim of the Study
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.6 Methodology
1.7 Scope
1.8 Significant Contributions
1.9 Organization of the Thesis

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction to Operating Systems
2.2 Processes
2.3 Scheduling
2.3.2 Mid-term or memory scheduler
2.3.3 Short-term or CPU scheduler
2.3.4 Performance criteria for scheduling algorithms (Scheduling criteria)
2.4 Scheduling Algorithms in Operating Systems
2.4.1 First come first served (FCFS)
2.4.2 Shortest job first (SJF)
2.4.3 Round robin (RR)
2.4.4 Priority scheduling
2.4.5 Highest response ratio next (HRRN)
2.5 Related Work

CHAPTE THREE
3.0 MINIMIZED PENALTY RATIO VARIANCE FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Approach of the Model
3.3 The Minimized Penalty Ratio Variance Algorithm (MPRV)
3.3.1 The proposed model
3.3.2 MPRV algorithm
3.3.3 Flowchart of the proposed model

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 IMPLEMENTATION AND TEST OF THE MINIMIZED PENALTY RATIO VARIANCE ALGORITHM
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Case Assumption
4.3 System Requirements
4.3.2 PHP Language
4.3.3 Simulation system specifications
4.4 Simulation Framework
4.5 Experiment Case Alongside Round Robin Algorithms
4.5.1 Classical round robin
4.5.2 Dynamic quantum re-adjusted round robin (DQRRR)
4.5.3 Improved round robin (IRR)
4.5.4 New improved round robin (NIRR)
4.5.5 Minimized penalty ratio variance algorithm
4.6 Results, Discussion And Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Future Work
References
Appendix

ABSTRACT
Scheduling is the technique of deciding which process is given control of a computer resource at a particular time. Processes are numerous while resources- such as the central processing unit (CPU), bandwidth and memory among others - are scarce. It therefore becomes necessary for scheduling to be done. Since there is no optimal scheduling algorithm, an algorithm becomes suitable based on the scheduling criteria that the operating system is designed to uphold. This thesis focuses on the development and evaluation of the performance of a CPU scheduling algorithm that achieves service timeliness by minimizing the penalty ratio variance. The algorithm inherits properties from the round robin scheduling algorithm. The model was tested and evaluated for performance alongside the Round Robin algorithm and some modifications of it, and was found to perform better than these other algorithms on penalty ratio variance minimization. This therefore implies that the turnaround time of a process can be determined before time; and can be evaluated to be a multiple of its penalty ratio.

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
One of the main functions of the operating system is scheduling (Babu et al., 2012). By switching the CPU among processes, the operating system can make the computer more productive (Silberschatz et al, 2005). Hence, it has become an interesting and important field of research in operating systems.

By way of definition, CPU scheduling can be defined as the art of determining which process to run when there are multiple runnable processes, (Chaudhary et al.,2012). It also refers to the way processes are assigned to run on the available CPU (Curtis et al., 2012).CPU scheduling therefore involves selecting from the processes in memory that are ready to execute, and allocating the CPU to one of them. A process is a program in execution.

CPU scheduling is not planning since there is no optimal solution; rather it is about balancing goals and making difficult tradeoffs. A new scheduling algorithm either places emphasis on a different goal or provides a simpler way to achieve the same goals as its predecessors. The only bad scheduling policy is one that trades something for nothing or de-emphasizes one goal without an improvement in another (Meehean, 2011). There exist various CPU scheduling algorithms, each one with its advantages and disadvantages (Lenka and Ranjan, 2012). In order to measure and compare the efficiency of a scheduling algorithm some criteria were suggested (Das et al., 2012). Which criteria are used for comparison can make a substantial difference in which algorithm is judged to be the best......

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