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Title page
Abbreviations and Acronyms

1.1 Background
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3       Justification of Study
1.4       Aim and Objectives
1.5       Limitation of the Study
1.6       Scope of Study

2.1       Participatory Approach and Transportation planning
2.2       Rural Accessibility and Planning
2.3       The Overall Processes of Transport Planning
2.4       Transportation Inventories
2.5 Public Engagement in Rural Transportation Planning
2.6       Steps in Transportation Planning
2.7       Collection, Compilation and Analysis of Data

3.1       Location of Study Area
3.2       Socio-economic characteristics of the Study Area
3.3       Current Status of transportation in the Study Area
3.4       Accessibility Problems in the Study Area3.5 Pilot Study3.6 Data Collection Procedure
3.6.1    Key Informant Interviews
3.6.2    Village Focus Group Discussions
3.6.3    Household Survey at Village Level
3.7       Pilot Study Results

4.1       A Developed Framework for Rural Roads Accessibility Planning
4.1.1 Development of Community Base Map
4.1.2 Identification and Consultation of Key Stakeholders
4.1.3 Defining Planning Objectives
4.1.4 Defining Rural Access Needs Relating To Planning Objectives
4.1.5 Data Collection and Compilation District Level Data Village Level Data Data Compilation and Analysis Accessibility Database4.1.6 Outline of the Main Access Problems
4.1.7 Outline of the Blueprint for Tackling Rural Access Problems
4.1.8 Prioritization of Locations for Specific Interventions
4.1.9Integrating Prioritized Interventions into Existing Development Plans
4.2 Case Studies
4.2.1 Settlement
4.2.2 Village Topography
4.2.3 Key Stakeholders
4.3 Economic Foundations of the Village Economies Studied
4.4 Modal Options
4.5       Modal Ownership/Access
4.6       Wealth Differentiated Modal Access/Ownership
4.7       Travel Patterns
4.7.1    Trip Purpose
4.8       Wealth Differentiated Travel Patterns
4.9 Gender Differentiated Travel Patterns

5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
Appendix 1- Questionnaire


The concept of public participation and how it can be incorporated in transport planning was studied. Current planning methods and steps were reviewed, and a tool which incorporates public participation in planning (questionnaire) was developed. This study was carried out using questionnaires that incorporate socioeconomic factors that affect transportation in the rural areas of Kaduna State. Data were collected and processed via the following: questionnaires, discussions, and interviews with the local communities. Community Masterplans were developed with GIS coordinates in Google Earth maps with precision and accuracy. Accessibility database was developed for the studied communities, using MYSQL, a computer program that manages database. A number of queries were performed which included trip frequency of females in Turunku, and the number of male travelers in Wusono with a modal option of bicycles, e.t.c. Additional accessibility indicators were determined, for example 150,600 for access to portable water supply and for other facilities like Healthcare Centers, Local Govt. Offices, e.t.c. Prioritization instructions were also updated in the community master plan. The study concluded by recommending the use of Participatory Approach to Transport Planning, and to diligently follow the necessary steps to achieve a proper and cost effective rural accessibility through participatory approach.



1.1 Background

Planning, design and construction of rural roads espeacially in the region of reference in this study is based on traditional methods mainly determined by the client and often dictated by eventualities and circumstances of funding. The appraisal process is normally based on cost-benefit analysis in some cases where international agencies and bodies like the World Bank are involved, while in others it is based on political and social considerations. However, there exist some associated problems with the current methods of planning, design and construction of rural roads, which include public acceptance, prioritization, funding/cash flow issues, resource allocation and maintenance to mention but a few. According to Riverson, et.al. (2001) rural roads investment has generally not received the correct emphasis in overall planning efforts. Resource allocation for instance, has usually been subject to ad-hoc decisions with lack of continuity, and fragmentation through separate projects. Designs often deviate from standards partly due to land availability issues and the level of priority given to such class of roads. On the other hand, construction is faced with poor workmanship by in-experienced contractors, lack of proper supervision and quality assurance programs among many other issues.

Rural roads are the tertiary road system which provides access to villages and farm lands from the main roads and various centers of activities. In developing countries like Nigeria, rural roads are termed as roads passing through rural and agricultural areas, connecting villages to main roads and/or a town/market centre. Traffic on such roads are relatively low, comprising of mixed modes of transportation like bullock carts, bicycle...

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