Cover page
Title page
Approval page
Table of Contents
Lists of Tables
Lists of Figures

1.1       Literature review
1.1.1    Ceiba pentendra
1.2       Wound
1.2.1    Classification of wound Open Wound Closed wound Acute wound Chronic Wound
1.3       Wound healing
1.3.1    Types of wound healing
1.3.2    Wound healing process
1.3.3    Factors affecting wound healing
1.3.4    Epidemiology
1.3.5    Management of wound
1.3.6    Alternative medicine for wound
1.4       Inflammation and wound
1.4.1    Types of inflammation
1.4.2    Cardinal signs of inflammation
1.4.3    Process of inflammation
1.4.4    Pharmacological treatment of inflammation
1.4.5    Ethnopharmacology and Inflammation
1.5       Wound and microbial infection
1.5.1    Types of wound infections
1.5.2    Laboratory tests to diagnose microorganisms
1.5.3    Bacteria wound culture
1.5.4    Antimicrobial susceptibility
1.5.5    Treatment
1.5.6    Choice of treatment
1.5.7    Bacterial resistance and antimicrobial agents
1.6       Statement of Problem
1.7       Scope of study
1.8       Justification of study
1.9       Aim   of   study/Specific   objective
1.10     significance of study

2.0       Materials and Methods
2.1       Plant collection and Identification
2.2       Animals
2.3       Extraction and fractionation
2.4       Phytochemical analysis
2.5       Preparation of ointment
2.6       Hplc fingerprinting
2.6.1    Analytical HPLC
2.6.2    Preparation of samples
2.6.3    HPLC-DAD Analysis
2.7       Pharmacological tests
2.7.1    Acute toxicity test
2.7.2    Wound healing test Excision Wound Model Incision wound
2.7.3    Anti-inflammation test Acute inflammation Chronic Inflammation
2.7.4    Antimicrobial Test
2.8       Method of Data Analyses

3.0       Results

4.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1       Discussion
4.2       Conclusion and Recommendation

Wound healing is a natural process that enables tissue repair after an injury while inflammation is a pathophysiological response of living tissue to injuries. To shorten the duration and minimize associated complications of wounds, wounds are treated with medications. Currently there is a growing interest in the use of traditional wound dressing agents such as plant extracts. One plant used traditionally in wound treatment is Ceiba pentendra. In view of its use in wound care, we investigated the wound healing activities of whole extract and fractions of Ceiba pentendra extract using excision and incision wound models while the Anti-inflammatory activities of the whole extract and fractions was investigated using paw edema and cotton pellets model. Excision wounds were created, and treated with ointments prepared from Ceiba pentendra, incision wounds were also created in rats with both treated topically with preparations of extract and fractions with the wound healing activities of ointment assessed by rates of wound contraction and epithelialization. Anti-inflammatory activities were assessed by treating with extract and fractions orally. Ceiba pentendra ointments shows significantly (p < 0.05) accelerated wound healing with CPE-45% ointment having the highest percentage wound contraction and rate of epithelialization, with wound healing effects being seen from day 4 (20.30%) with total healing occurring at day 20 (100%). In excision wound healing activities involving the fractions. All fractions showed significantly (p<0 .05="" i="">) accelerated wound healing, with HXCP-30% being the most active with wound healing effects seen at day 4 (22.91%) and total healing occurring at the 16th day (100%).Wound breaking strengths in incision wound models involving the extract, significant (p<0 .05="" i="">) was seen at CPE-45% with other doses showing a non-significant effects. In incision wound model involving fractions the wound breaking strength showed significant with HXCP-30% and BNCP-30%. Anti-inflammatory effects using cotton-pellets showed that granuloma tissues formed in the extract treated groups were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group, the significant was seen with CPE-200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effects using cotton-pellets showed that granuloma tissues formed in the fractions treated groups were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group, the significant was seen with CPE-200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The extracts showed significant anti-inflammatory activities after 2 h with maximum percentage inhibition of 60.00% seen at the sixth hour at 400 mg/kg dose level. Nevertheless inhibition was still observed at six hours after administration at all dose level. In paw oedema model involving various fractions, a significant inhibition (P<0 .05="" i="">) was seen with butanol fraction at all dose levels, with percentage inhibition of 13.68% occurring at 1 h for BNCP-200 mg/kg and percentage inhibition of 31.25%, at the fifth h for BNCP-100 mg/kg. There was a dose dependent inhibition for the hexane fractions; hence inhibition was seen at 200 mg/kg at the fourth hour with percentage inhibition of 31.25%, while no effect was seen with HXCP-100 mg/kg. The ethylacetate fraction also showed significant inhibition at all dose level starting at the third hour for EACP-100 mg/kg with percentage inhibition of 21.05% and the fourth hour for EACP-200 mg/kg with percentage of 22.22%. Maximum percentage inhibition was seen of 46.15% was seen at HXCP- 200 mg/kg, EACP-100 mg/kg and BNCP-200 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that Ceiba pentendra has good wound healing and antibacterial activities. These findings validate the use of this plant in traditional medicine for treatment of wounds.

A wound refers to an injury to the skin or underlying tissues or organs (Agyare et al., 2013). Dermal wounds are often caused by surgery, trauma, and chemicals or as a result of diseases (Raina et al., 2008; Agyare et al., 2013). Intentionally created dermal wounds can be incisional, whereby the wound is brought about by surgically cutting into the skin with a scalpel or excision wound created when a part of the skin is cut off (Waldron and Trevor, 1993). The process of tissue repair after an insult to the tissue (wound) is called ‘wound healing’ (Nguyen et al., 2009). Wound healing is an intricate process in which usually the skin repairs itself. The process involves four overlapping phases: haemostasis (ceasation of bleeding), inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (Nguyen et al., 2009; Pandith et al., 2013). Inflammation is a pathophysiological response of living tissue to injuries that leads to the local accumulation of plasmic fluid and blood cells. The complex events and mediators involved in the inflammatory reaction can induce, maintain or aggravate many diseases (Shukla et al., 2010). However, studies have been continuing on inflammatory diseases and the side effects of currently available anti-inflammatory drugs pose a major problem during their clinical uses. Therefore development of newer and more substantial anti-inflammatory drugs with lesser side effects is necessary (Shukla et al., 2010).

A major problem with wounds is the high risk of infection; hence, if an agent active against these microorganisms causing the infection is used in the healing process, it will then help to reduce the

risk  of  infection  and
the  overall  time  for  wound  healing  can  be  reduced  significantly
(Irvine, 1961).  Bacteria
colonize  wounds  within  48  h  after  injury  and  bacteria  such

as Staphylococcus aureusPseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp may cause infection....

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