Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Abbreviations

1.1                   Sweeteners
1.1.1                Common Sweeteners and Their Production             Natural Sweeteners          Honey          Maple Syrup          Molasses          Stevia          Sucrose             Artificial Sweeteners
1.2                   Synsepalum dulcificum
1.3                   Nutrients
1.3.1                Carbohydrates
1.3.2                Proteins
1.3.3                Fats
1.4                   Phytochemicals
1.5                   Antinutrients
1.6                   Vitamins
1.6.1                VitaminA
1.6.2                Vitamin C
1.6.3                Vitamin D
1.6.4                Vitamin E
1.6.5                Vitamin K
1.7                   Antioxidant
1.8                   Some Minerals and Their Biological Functions
1.8.1                Calcium (Ca)             Metabolic Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Calcium
1.8.2                Magnesium (Mg)             Metabolic Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Magnesium
1.8.3                Zinc (Zn)             Metabolic Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Zinc
1.8.4                Iron (Fe)             Metabolic Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Iron
1.8.5                Copper (Cu)             Metabolic Functions and Deficiency Symptoms of Copper
1.9                   Blood Glucose
1.9.1                Blood Glucose Regulation
1.10                 Lipids
1.10.1              Lipoproteins: Types and Functions           Chylomicrons           Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL)           Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)        Metabolism of Low Density Lipoprotein via LDL Receptor        Regulation of LDL Receptor           High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
1.11                 Total Cholesterol andCholesterol Balance in Tissues
1.11.1              Diet and Cholesterol Regulation
1.12                 Liver Function Biomarkers
1.12.1              Alanine Aminotransferase
1.12.2              Aspartate Aminotransferase
1.12.3              Alkaline Phosphatase
1.12.4              Clinical and Diagnostic Significance of Liver Function Enzymes
1.12.5              Bilirubin
1.12.6              Serum Protein
1.12.7              Serum Albumin
1.13                 Renal Function Biomarkers
1.13.1              Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
1.13.2              Creatinine
1.14                 Lipid Peroxidation
1.14.1              Initiation
1.14.2              Propagation
1.14.3              Termination
1.14.4              Types of Lipid Peroxidation           Non- Enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation           Enzymatic Lipid Peroxidation
1.15                 Research Objectives
1.15.1              General Objectives
1.15.2              Specific Objectives

2.1                   Materials
2.1.1                Plant materials
2.1.2                Animals
2.1.3                Chemicals and Reagents
2.1.4                Equipment /Instruments
2.2                   Methods
2.2.1                Experimental Design
2.2.2                Extraction of Plant Material
2.2.3                Determination of the Extract Yield
2.2.4                Toxicological studies             Acute Toxicity Studies and Lethal Dose (LD50) Test
2.2.5                Proximate Analysis             Moisture             Crude Protein             Crude Fat             Crude Fibre             Ash/Mineral Matter             Carbohydrate or Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)
2.2.6                Estimation of Vitamins             Determination of Vitamin A             Determination of Vitamin C             Determination of Vitamin D             Determination of Vitamin E             Determination of Vitamin K
2.2.7                Determination of Mineral Content of S. dulcificum Pulp             Determination of Phosphorus
2.2.8                Determination of Amino Acid Profile             Defatting of the Pulp             Hydrolysis of the Pulp             Nitrogen Determination             Loading of the Hydrolysate into TSM Analyzer             Method of Calculating Amino Acid values using Chromatogram Peaks
2.2.9                Qualitative Phytochemical Studies on Synsepalum dulcificum Pulp             Test for Alkaloids             Test for Glycosides             Test for Cyanogenic Glycosides             Test for Tannins             Test for Saponins             Test for Flavonoids             Test for Resins             Test for Terpenoids and Steroids
2.2.10              Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of S.dulcificum Pulp           Determination of Alkaloids           Determination of Cyanogenic Glycosides           Determination of Saponins           Determination of Flavonoids           Determination of Tannins           Determination of Steroids           Determination of Terpenoids
2.2.11              Antinutrient Analysis of S. dulcificum Pulp           Determination of Oxalates           Determination of Phytates           Determination of Haemagglutanins
2.2.12              Blood Sample Collection for Biochemical Analysis
2.2.13              Biochemical Assays           Assay of Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity           Assay of Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity           Assay of Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activity           Determination of Bilirubin Concentration Using Colorimetric Method        Determination of Total Bilirubin (TB) Concentration           Total Serum Protein Assay           Serum Albumin Concentration           Creatinine           Urea           Blood glucose Assay         Estimation of Serum Lipid Concentrations      Estimation of Total Cholesterol Concentration      Estimation of Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Concentration      Estimation of High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)–Cholesterol Concentration      Estimation of Triacylglycerol         Estimation of Lipid Peroxidation
2.2.14              Histopathological Examination
2.2.15              Statistical Analysis

3.1       Proximate Composition of S. dulcificum Pulp
3.2       Mineral Composition of S. dulcificum Pulp
3.3       Vitamin Content of S.dulcificum Pulp
3.4       Amino Acid Profile of S. dulcificum Pulp
3.5       Phytochemical Composition of S. dulcificum Pulp
3.6       Antinutritional Composition of S.dulcificum Pulp
3.7       Acute toxicity (LD50) Studies
3.8       Mean Body Weights of Animals
3.9       Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Activity in Rats
3.10     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity in Rats
3.11     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Activity in Rats
3.12     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Bilirubin levels in Rats
3.13     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Total Serum Protein concentration in rats
3.14     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Serum Albumin Concentration in Rats
3.15     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Serum Globulinin Rats
3.16     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Creatinine Level in Rats
3.17     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Urea Level in Rats
3.18     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Blood Glucose Concentration in Rats
3.19     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Cholesterol Concentration in Rats
3.20     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Rats
3.21     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Rats
3.22     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Triacylglycerol Concentration in Rats
3.23     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanolic Extract Administration on Malondialdehyde Concentration in Rats
3.24     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanol Extract Administration on the Histopathology of Rat Liver [14 days duration]
3.25     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanol Extract Administration on the Histopathology of Rat Liver [28 days duration]
3.26     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanol Extract Administration on the Histopathology of Rat Kidney [14 days duration]
3.27     Effect of S. dulcificumMethanol Extract Administration on the Histopathology of Rat Kidney [28 days duration]
4.1       Discussion
4.2       Conclusion
4.3       Suggestions For Further Studies

The nutritive and antinutritive compositions of S. dulcificum pulp were analysed to augment the available information on the anti-diabetic effect of the plant. Biochemical parameters like liver function enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP) and bilirubin concentrations,serum total protein, serum albumin and globulin, kidney function parameters (creatinine and urea concentrations), blood glucose, serum lipid profile and lipid peroxidation were determined in rats that were administered different concentrations of the methanolic extract to ascertain their effects. The internal organs (liver and kidney) were also removed and used for histopathological studies. From the result of the study, the proximate composition shows that S. dulcificum contains 7.75% protein, 59.55% moisture content, 4.36% ash, 6.24% crude fibre, 3.26% fat and 18.84% carbohydrate.The result of the mineral analysis shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 100 mg/g calcium, 24.20 mg/g iron, 9.49 mg/g zinc, 6.22 mg/g copper, 0.01 mg/g chromium and 0.01 mg/g cobalt. Vitamin analyses shows that the S. dulcificum pulp contains 0.04% vitamin A, 22.69% vitamin C, 0.01% vitamin D and 0.02% vitamin K. Antinutrient analyses of the pulp show 5.67% oxalate, 0.03% phytates and 0.02% hemagglutanin. Amino acid profile shows that S.dulcificum pulp contains 8.055% tryptophan, 1.35% phenylalanine, 0.7% isoleucine, 0.5% tyrosine, 1.05% methionine, 0.4% proline, 0.69% valine, 1.1% threonine, 0.4% histidine, 0.5% alanine, 1.02% glutamine, 1.6% glutamic acid, 0.7% glycine, 0.3% serine, 1% arginine, 0.1% aspartic acid, 1.23% asparagine, 0.6% lysine and 0.6% leucine. Quantitative phytochemical analysis shows that the pulp contains 3.45% saponins, 57.01%`flavonoids, 7.12% tannins, 0.0001% alkaloids, 0.0001% glycosides, 0.0003% resins, 0.0002% terpenoids, 0.0001% steroids and 0.0003% cyanogenic glycosides.The results of the acute toxicity show that the methanol extract is not toxic to the mice at concentrations up to 5000mg/kg body weight. From the results obtained, the animals receiving 100mg/kg b.w of the methanolic extract showed significantly reduced (p<0 .05="" 14="" 28="" after="" alt="" and="" bilirubin="" cholesterol="" compared="" day="" density="" difference="" glucose="" however="" levels="" lipoprotein="" low="" no="" of="" p="" serum="" significant="" study.="" study="" the="" to="">0.05) was also observed across the groups in their serum ALP, AST, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, TAG, albumin and globulin levels on the 14th day compared with the 28th day. A significant difference (p

The worsening food crisis and the consequent widespread prevalence of malnutrition in developing and under-developed countries have resulted in high mortality and morbidity rates, especially among infants and children in low-income groups (Enujiugba and Akanbi, 2005). Food has been defined as any substance containing primarily carbohydrates, fats, water, protein, vitamins and minerals that can be taken by an animal or human to meet its nutritional needs and sometimes for pleasure. Items considered as food may be sourced from plants, animals or fungus as well as fermented products like alcohol. Food is also anything solid or liquid that has a chemical composition which enables it provide the body with the material from which it can produce heat or any form of energy, provide material to allow for growth, maintenance, repair or reproduction to proceed and supply substances, which normally regulate the production of energy or the process of growth, repair or reproduction. Food is therefore, the most basic necessity of life (Turner, 2006).

Nutrition is the science that deals with all the various factors of which food is composed and the way in which proper nourishment is brought about. The average nutritional requirements of groups of people are fixed and depend on such measurable characteristics as age, sex, height, weight, degree of activity and rate of growth. Good nutrition requires a satisfactory diet which is capable of supporting the individual consuming it, in a state of good health by providing the desired nutrients in required amounts. It must provide the right amount of nutrients and fuel to execute normal physical activity. If the total amount of nutrients provided in the diet is insufficient, a state of under- nutrition develops.

Plants are primary sources of medicines, food, shelters and other items used by humans everyday. Their roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds provide for humans (Amaechi, 2009; Hemingsway, 2004). Fruits are sources of minerals, fibre and vitamins which also provide essential nutrients for the human health (Anaka et al., 2009). Some fruits are also known to have antinutritional factors such as phytate and tannins,that can diminish the nutrient bioavailability if they are present at high concentrations (Baum, 2007). It has been reported that these anti-nutritional factors could also help in the treatment and prevention of certain....

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