MODELS FOR PREDICTING THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SAND-QUARRY DUST BLOCKS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Approval page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Appendices

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Statement of Objectives
1.4 Scope of the Study
1.5 Justification of Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Blocks
2.1.1    Sandcrete blocks
2.1.2    Constituents of Sandcrete blocks
2.1.1.2 Strength and durability properties of hardened concrete/sandcrete
2.1.1.3 Manufacture of Sandcrete blocks
2.1.1.4 Factors affecting the strength of sandcrete blocks
2.2.      Quarry dust
2.2.1  Physical and chemical properties of quarry dust
2.2.2  Use of quarry dust in concrete/sandcrete works
2.3       Application of statistical methods in concrete mixture optimization
292.3.1            Mixture experiment and model forms
2.3.1.1 Scheffe’s simplex lattice designs
2.3.1.2 Augmented simplex lattice design (ASL)
2.3.1.3Axial designs
2.3.1.4 Simplex-centroid design
2.3.1.5Osadebe’s model
2.3.2   Model selection and validation (Test for goodness)
2.3.2.1Model selection and test for goodness for the augmented simplex lattice model
2.3.2.2 Test of goodness for Osadebe’s model
2.4       Design and Analysis of mixture experiments using computer software
2.4.1    Design and Analysis of mixture experiments using Minitab 16 (2010)

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials
3.1.1    Cement
3.1.2    Water
3.1.3    Sand
3.1.4    Quarry dust
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Design of experiments
3.2.1.1Scheffe’s augmented simplex lattice models
3.2 .1.2            Mix ratios for the Osadebe’s model
3.2.2                Experimental investigation
3.2.2.1 Field work
3.2.2.2Laboratory Investigation
3.2.3    Cost of production of 1m3 of sand-quarry dust mixes
3.2.4.  Mixture data Analysis and Regression Equations
3.2.5. Comparison of results
3.2.6 Computer Programs

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
4.1       Presentation of Results
4.1.1    Physical property tests results
4.1.2    Chemical property tests results of cement and quarry dust
4.1.3   Characteristics tests results of blocks
4.1.4  Model equations and test of adequacy of models
4.1.4.1Model equations for Compressive strength
4.1.4.2Model equations for Water absorption
4.1.4.3Model equations for Flexuralstrength
4.1.4.4Model equations for Split tensilestrength
4.1.4.5 Model equations for Static modulus of elasticity
4.1.4.6Model equations for Shearstrength
4.1.4.7 Model equations for Cost
4.1.5:  Model results and comparison of experimental and model results
4.1.6    Statistical comparison of models
4.1.7 Response trace plots
4.2. Discussion of Results.
4.2.1 Physical properties of Sand and Quarry dust
4.2.1.1 Specific gravity and Bulk density of sand and quarry dust
4.2.1.2 Gradation of sand and quarry dust
4.2.2 Chemical analysis of quarry dust and cement.
4.2.3  Effect of partial replacement of sand with quarry dust on some strength properties of the blocks
4.2.4 Analysis of model equations
4.2.4.1 Maximum model responses
4.2.4.2 Component interactions
4.2.4.3 Comparison of experimental and model results and between the models
4.2.4.4. Cox response trace plots (Component interactions)
4.2.5 Computer programs OPTIMIZER and RESPONDER
4.2.6. Cost of blocks
4.2.7  Relationships between compressive strength and other properties

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Conclusions
5.2       Recommendations
5.3       Contribution to Knowledge
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


ABSTRACT
In this work, models for predicting six structural characteristics and cost of sand-quarry dust blocks were developed. Three model equations namely Scheffe’s simplex lattice design (pseudo component), Scheffe’s simplex lattice design (component proportion) and Osadebe’s model were developed for each property.

The properties investigated were Compressive strength, Water absorption and Split tensile strength. The others are Static modulus of elasticity, Flexural strength and Shear strength. The models were fitted to data obtained from tests on various mixes of 140 sand-quarry dust hollow blocks of 450 x 225 x 225 mm, 66 beams of 600 x 150 x150mm and 66 cylinder specimens of 150mm diameter and 300mm long. Adequacy of the models were confirmed using F statistic and normal probability plot. Computer programs, were developed to determine the responses to a given mix and the mixes that give a desired response value. The effect of the partial replacement of sand with quarry dust on the characteristics of the blocks was also studied. Component interactions was studied using Cox response trace plots. Comparisons between the experimental and model predicted results and between the models were made. The percentage difference between the experimental and model predicted values were all below 5% for all the models and responses. The analyses also show that there is no significant statistical difference between the models. The minimum and maximum values of compressive strength predictable by Scheffe’s pseudo component model are respectively 2.74 and 5.22Nmm-2. The corresponding values for the water absorption of the blocks are 3.21 and 7.84%. For the Scheffe’s component proportion model, the predictable compressive strength values range from 2.77 to 5.23Nmm-2. The corresponding range for water absorption is 3.20 to 7.84%. The minimum and maximum flexural strength predictable by the Scheffe’s pseudo component model are 2.40 and 4.34Nmm-2 respectively. The corresponding values for the Split tensile strength are 2.24 and 3.33Nmm-2. For Scheffe’s component proportion model, the corresponding values are 2.45 and 4.35Nmm-2 for the flexural strength and 2.27 and 3.33Nmm-2 for the split tensile strength. Analyses of the pseudo component models show that there is binary synergy between sand and quarry dust for all the properties. Other binary combinations anti synergistic effects. Cement and water has the greatest effect on the properties. The structural properties of the blocks improved when 10 to 40% of the sand was partially replaced with quarry dust. The optimum replacement was at 40% with an increase in compressive strength of 27%. A list of 117 mixes that meet NIS 87: (2004) recommended minimum compressive strength of 3.45Nmm-2 for load bearing sandcrete blocks was established. It is recommended that the inclusion of quarry dust in sandcrete block  production  be  encouraged  especially  in  areas  where  quality  sand  for sandcrete block production is scarce and expensive.


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1      General
Walls are the basic element in the construction of most buildings. They are often required to be load bearing, especially in low rise buildings (1-2 upper floors).

Sandcrete blocks are the most commonly used unit in wall construction in modern Nigeria and, indeed, the entire West Africa. The use of laterite and other forms of walling units, for the construction of modern residential buildings have not made much progress when compared to the use of sandcrete blocks. The same can also be said of bricks. The major advantage of sandcrete blocks is the ease of production and laying of the blocks

The structural properties of blocks of interest include compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, modulus of elasticity, shear modulus and split tensile strength. Others are density, fire resistance, durability and thermal conductivity. These properties are dependent to a very large extent on the relativeproportions of the constituents and the method of production process.

Sandcrete blocks are traditionally made of cement, natural river sand and water. The constituents are mixed and placed in a mould which is removed immediately after compaction and leveling of the top. The newly produced blocks are self-supporting; hence they are often referred to as zero slump concrete. Individual blocks are joined together, after curing, to form walls using cement-sand mortar. It is often the practice to partially replace the sand portion with other materials such as laterite, coarse aggregate or quarry dust. Sand-quarry dust blocks are sandcrete blocks in which the sand portion has been partially replaced with quarry dust.....

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 250 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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