EFFECT OF FOUR MODE APPLICATION TECHNIQUES ON ACHIEVEMENT, RETENTION AND MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES OF STUDENTS WITH DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES IN BIOLOGY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
CERTIFICATION
APPROVAL PAGE
DEDICATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework
Methods of Teaching Science
Learning Styles
Brain Based Learning
Four Mode Application Techniques (4MAT)
Multiple Intelligences (MI)
Gender and Student’s Achievements
Theoretical Framework
Theory of Constructivism
Piaget’s Cognitive Theory
Vygotsky’s Constructivist Social Learning Theory
Empirical Studies
Studies on 4MAT System
Studies on Multiple Intelligences
Studies on Retention
Studies on Gender and Students’ Academic Achievement
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instruments for Data Collection
Validation of the Instruments
Reliability of the Instruments
Experimental Procedure
Control of Extraneous Variables
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Research Question 5
Research Question 6
Research Question 7
Research Question 8
Research Question 9
Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 2
Hypothesis 3
Hypothesis 4
Hypothesis 5
Hypothesis 6
Hypothesis 7
Hypothesis 8
Hypothesis 9
Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: Discussion, Conclusion and Summary
Discussion of the Findings of the Study
Conclusions Reached from the Findings of the Study
Educational Implication of the Findings of the Study
Recommendations
Limitations of the Study
Suggestion for Further Studies
Summary of the Study
REFERENCES


Abstract
This study investigated the effect of Four Mode Application Techniques (4MAT) on achievement, retention and multiple intelligences of students with different learning styles. To guide the study, nine research questions were posed and nine hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05% probability level. Quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study, specifically the non-equivalent control group design. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. A sample size of one hundred and thirty nine (139) SSII Biology students were used for the study. This sample was drawn using purposive sampling technique. Two groups of students were used for this study, they are experimental and control groups. The experimental group were taught using 4MAT and the control group was taught using the conventional lecture method. The treatment lasted for six weeks. Three instruments were used for data collection in this study namely: Biology Achievement Test (BAT), Multiple Intelligence Inventory (MII) Students and Teacher Interview Schedule (STIS). The same test (BAT) was used as pretest, posttest, and retention test. At each stage after the pretest, the items were reshuffled. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The results of the study revealed that there was a statistically significant main effect for instructional methods on mean achievement score of students in biology F(7, 138) = 11.500, p<.000, there was a statistically significant main effect for instructional methods on mean retention score of students in biology F(7, 138) = 43.160, p<.000, there was a statistically significant main effect for instructional methods on Multiple Intelligence

(MI) score of students in biology F(7, 138) = 39.986, p<.000. Also, there was no significant main influence of gender on students achievement in biology F(1, 138) = .433, p>.512. There was no significant main influence of gender on students retention in biology F(1, 138) = .831, p>.364, there was a statistical significant main influence of gender on students multiple intelligences in biology F(1, 138) = 4.184, p<.043, there was no statistical significant main interaction effect of method and gender on mean achievement score of students in biology F(7, 138) = 1.826, p>.088, there was no statistical significant main interaction effect of methods and gender on mean retention score of students in biology F(7, 138) = .996, p<.437, and there was a statistical significant main interaction effect of method and gender on MI score of students in biology F(7, 138) = 2.473, p<.021. In line with the findings of the study, the educational implications of the findings were highlighted and the recommendations were equally proffered among others that science teachers, science educators and authors and textbook writers should adopt 4MAT when teaching or writing of textbooks to enhance students’ achievement, retention and Multiple

Intelligence. The limitations of the study and suggestions for further studies were equally made.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Biology is a branch of natural science that deals with the study of living organisms, their structures, functions, evolution, distribution and interrelationships. Biology occupies a unique position in the secondary school education curriculum because of its importance as science of life. In Nigeria, the secondary school Biology curriculum is designed to continue students’ investigation into natural phenomena, deepen students’ understanding and interest in biological sciences and to encourage students’ ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life (Federal Ministry of Education, 2009). Biology is an important science subject and stands as the bedrock to the learning of other science courses like Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Biochemistry, Genetics and Agriculture that are of great economic importance to the nation. Besides the importance of Biology as the science of life, it is one of the science subjects that are mostly preferred by many students in secondary schools. For this reason, Biology has a very high enrolment of students in the external examination (West African Examination Council, 2011).

The objectives of the Biology curriculum according to the National Policy on Education is to prepare students to acquire: adequate laboratory and field skill in Biology, meaningful and relevant knowledge of Biology, the ability to apply scientific knowledge to everyday life in matters of personal and community health and agriculture and reasonable and functional scientific attitude. In pursuance of the above stated objectives of biology curriculum, the contents and context of the curriculum place emphasis on field studies, guided discovery, laboratory techniques and skills along with conceptual attitude (Federal Ministry of Education, 2007). To achieve these objectives of the Biology curriculum, emphasis should be placed on the teaching....

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