EFFECTIVE USE OF A TROPICAL HOP NAMED BITTER LEAF [VERNONIA AMYGDALINA] EXTRACT AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING THE SHELF – LIFE OF LOCALLY BREWED MILLET BEER

ABSTRACT
This local beer is brewed from a cereal grain called millet,and it is brewed with bitter leave extract acting as hop substitute to see if it can increase the shelf – life of this beer.The production process include malting, mashing, fermentation, and maturation.The microorganisms associated with fermentation include Saccharomyces Cerevisiae and Saccharomyces Charelienia. These yeast hasten fermentation by converting the sugar in the beer to alcohol. Kunu is an indigenous alcoholic beverages that is traditionally brewed with out hops,and because of this it has a shot shelf life as compared with that brewed with the tropical hops.There is a significant [P≥ 0.05] difference in chemical properties of millet with hops and without hops.Millet with hops is the best with alcoholic content of 0.325 ± 0.004, total acidity of 0.645 ± 0.011(% lactic acid),fixed acidity of 0.041± 0.002, specific gravity of 1.199±0.015 and pH of 4.03± 0.02.But without hops we have an alcoholic content of 0.316± 0.005, total acidity(lactic acid) of 0.427± 0.002, fixed acidity of 0.034± 0.005,specific gravity of 1.049± 0.007, and pH of 3.32±0.02.From the result the beer without hops is the lowest in acceptance of chemical properties so it is advisable that the local millet beer be brewed with the tropical hops (Vernonia Amygdalina).                                                                                                                            

TABLE   OF  CONTENT                          

Title page
Certification  page
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table  of  content
List  of  tables
List  of   figure

CHAPTER   ONE                                                                                                                                                                            
1.0   Introduction
1.1  Aim  of  study / project


CHAPTER   TWO                                                                                                                                                                                      
2.0   Literature  Review
2.1  General  Description of  Cereal Crops
2.2   Origin  of  Millet  and  its  distribution
2.2.1   Botanical [Scientific  classification]
2.2.2    Diseases  and  Pest  of   Pearl  Millets
2.2.3    Grain  Composition  and  Nutritive  value
2.2.4   Other  Uses  of   Pearl   Millet
2.3  Origin  and  Distribution   of  Sorghum
2.3.1   Botanical[Scientific Classification]
2.3.2   Grain  Composition  of   Sorghum
2.3.3   Other  Uses  of   Sorghum
2.4      Hops
2.4.1   Other   Uses   of   Hops
2.5     Bitter leaves  Juice  and  its  role
2.5.1  Botanic  Classification  of   Bitter leaves
2.5.2  Composition  of   Bitter leaves
2.6     Yeast
2.6.1  Origin  and  Distribution  of  Yeast
2.6.2   Composition   of   Yeast
2.6.3   How  Yeast  is  Prepared
2.7     Water
2.8      Clarifying   agent
2.9      Adjuncts
2.10    Biochemistry  of   brewing   Process
2.10.1  Biochemistry  of  Malting
2.10.2  Biochemistry  of  Boiling
2.10.3  Biochemistry  of  Mashing
2.10.4  Biochemistry  of  Souring
2.10.5  Biochemistry  of  Fermentation
2.11     Straining
2.12    Properties   of   Beer
2.12.1  Processes  Involved  in  Beer  Production
2.12.2  Lagering
2.12.3  Types  of   Beer
2.13 Preparation  of   Local  Beer
2.13.1   Factors Affecting  both  Local  and Modern Beer
2.13.2   Alcoholic  Content  of   Beer
2.13.3   Differences  Between  Local  and Modern Beer
2.14      Packaging  and  Distribution
2.14.1   Spoilage
2.15      Importance  of  fermented Alcoholic Beverages

CHAPTER   THREE                                                                                 
3.0  Materials  and  methods
3.0.1   Materials
3.0.1.1 Chemicals  and  Reagents
3.0.1.2 Glass  wares  and  equipments
3.1 Preparation  of  samples
3.1.1 Methods
3.1.1.1 Ingredients
3.1.2  Method used to prepared local millet beer
3.1.2.1  Method used to prepared aqueous extract of  bitter leaf
3.1.3  Method  of  chemical  analysis
3.1.4  Total  acidity
3.1.5  Fixed  acidity
3.1.6 Volatile  acidity
3.2  pH   determination
3.3 Specific  gravity
3.4  Determination  of  Alcohol  content
3.5  Total  dissolved  solid (TDS)
3.6  Total  suspended  solid (TSS)
3.7   Microbial Count
3.7.1  Procedure  for  culturing in the  plate
3.7.2  Procedure for identification  of  the  organisms

CHAPTER    FOUR                                                                                                           
4.0  Results
4.1  Some  Chemical  Parameters
4.2  Total  Acidity for local Millet  Beer
4.3 Fixed  acidity for local Millet Beer
4.4  Volatile  Acidity
4.5  Specific Gravity  of  Millet  Beer
4.6  pH   value  for  local  millet  beer
4.7  Total  dissolved  solid
4.8 Total  suspended  solid
4.9  Ethanol  Content  for  Bench  Stored  Millet
4.10   Microbial  Count  for  Bench  Millet  Beer
4.10.1  Microbial  Count  for  Freezed  Millet Beer
4.11  General  Discussion  of  Results


CHAPTER  FIVE                                                                                                                           
5.0  Disadvantages  Associated  with Over Consumption of  Brewed Beer
5.0.1  Advantages associated  with consumption of  brewed beer
5.1   Conclusion
5.2  Recommendation
5.3  Limitations  of  Study
5.4  References
5.5  Appendix  A
5.6  Appendix   B
5.7 Appendix   C
5.8  Appendix   D
5.9 Appendix   E


CHAPTER  ONE
1.0   INTRODUCTION
Beer, alcoholic brewery made from a Cerael grains known as barley and Millet.A process called Fermentation in which Microscopic fungi known as yeast is used to consume sugers in the grains to make Beers,converting them to alcohol and carbondioxide gas.This chemical process typically produce beers with an adequate level of alcohol content of about  2-6%.Over an aggregate of 70 types of  beer are available in the modern worlds todays.Each style of beer derives its unique characteristics  and differences in its brewing process.Four basic ingredients are used in brewing,which includes;grains, hops,[bitterleaves as a hop’s substitute]Yeast and water,Grains like Millet contain the natural sugers required for  fermentation.It also provides beer  with  flavour,colour,body and  texture.Hops are small,green,cone-shaped flowers from the hop plant,a vine related to the nettle plant over  50 varieties of hops are grown throughout the  world, mostly in Europe,Australia and  North America.But the hops we want to used is bitterleave acting as hop’s substitute.It is mostly  grown here in Africa.Hops provides the Beer with spicy, bitter flavour  and contribute  natural  substances that prevent bacteria  from spoiling beer. Two species of  Yeast ;Saccharomyces  cerevisiae  and  Saccharomyces  uvarum  and baker’s yeast.Each yeast species is used in a slightly different method of fermentation and produces a distinct  type of  beer. Throughout history, where ever Cereal grains were grown, Humans made beer with beverage for them. They used Barley in Egypt, Millet and Sorghum in other parts of  Africa, beer brewing is a major industrial revolution world wide. In 2002,In the United States,1800brewers,produced almost 175 millions barrels of  beer.Beer is deeply interlined in the fabric of Society, from the Economic to the intangible locally...

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 91 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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