THE INFLUENCE OF PROSTATE CANCER AWARENESS CAMPAIGNS ON THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF MEN IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the influence of Prostate cancer awareness campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of men in South-Eastern Nigeria. The study used survey research design through the instrumentality of questionnaire (twenty-eight items questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection). The population of the study is 8,184,951 adult males in South-Eastern Nigeria. Five research questions guided the study. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The result of the data analyzed revealed that the awareness and knowledge level on prostate cancer is relatively low among the men in South-Eastern Nigeria. Also, most information on prostate cancer were made known to the respondents by medical practitioners, however, those respondents that are exposed to the campaigns agreed that the campaigns have influenced their behavior positively. The study recommended that awareness campaigns should be well structured to sufficiently address the nonchalant attitudes of men in South-Eastern Nigeria. Also, campaign planners should lower the age for screening, so that early detection and prevention can be made before it becomes too late.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.2       Cancer: A Genetic Disease
2.3       Prostate Cancer: What it is all About
2.4       Hormones and Prostate Cancer: An Overview
2.5       How to Detect Prostate Cancer
2.6       Treatment and Management of Prostate Cancer
2.7       Knowledge and Awareness of Prostate Cancer Campaigns
2.8       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of the Study
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique/Procedure
3.5       Measuring Instrument
3.6       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
3.7       Method of Data Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2       Discussion of Findings
            References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDAITONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

Cancer is the growth disorder of cells in the body. Clinically, it can be defined as a large number (up to a hundred) of complex diseases that behave differently depending on the cell types from which they originate (William, Klug et.al, 2009, p.513). It is a genetic disease which is caused by mutation that has dominated other cells. In 2000, there were 1,220,100 reported cases of new cancers and 552,200 cancer deaths, indicating that roughly half of the people who develop cancer die from it (William, Klug, et.al, 2009, p.513). Statistics emanating from different health organisations and agencies around the world indicate that there are over 16 million new cases of cancer globally. This figure, according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2011report, is likely to double in 2020 (Chustecka, 2011, p.1). The rapid spread of this disease to a large extent is as a result of unawareness of its early symptoms which can be treated at its early stage when detected. Cells proliferation and metastasis nature of cancer has made it worst, this has resulted to its fast spread (cancer) in human body. Cell proliferation has to do with the division of cells into multiple units which can be said to be characterized by abnormal cell growth. On the other hand, metastasis is a process that allows these cells to spread to other parts of the body. The painful aspect of this disease is the ability to combine both cell proliferation and metastatic, this makes it more dangerous. (Peter & George, 2002, p. 367).

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in 2008 gave an estimate of over 681,000 and 512,400 new cases of cancer. These figures have increased to 1.4 million cases and 714 thousand deaths in 2010 (IARC Report 2010, p.3). The three most deadly human cancers are cancer of the lung, cancer of the colon and breast cancer. However, lung cancer is largely preventable, most of these cases result from smoking cigarettes (American Cancer Society, 2000, p. 13).

There are several causes of cancer, notable among them is the genetic factor. John Hill, an English physician in 1761 discovered that some tumors which can develop to cancer are caused by chemicals. Percival Pott, also made a similar discovery, he discovered that heavy snuff users are exposed to cancer. The 1966 Nobel Prize winner in medicine, Peyton, Rous discovered another cause of cancer. He found out that virus can cause cancer in human (Peter & George, 2002, p. 368).

Peter and George, (2002, p. 369), stated that, one out of every three children born will contract cancer at some time during their lives. While one-fourth of the male children and one-third of the female children will someday die of cancer. One begins to wonder what will be the fate of developing nations since the level of knowledge and awareness of this disease is relatively poor in these nations.
The most deadly disease in men is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer which only affects men. It is the second leading cause of death in men. (World Cancer Report 2011, p.4). It occurs when tumor begins to grow in the prostate gland of male reproductive system. The word "prostate" means "one standing in front". The prostate is so called because of its position, which is directly at the base of the bladder. It is estimated that 241,740 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 2012 in America and out of this number, 28,170 patients will die from this disease (America Cancer Society, 2012, p. 23).

This is to show the low level of awareness and attention given to this disease that is gradually sending most men to the grave. Developing nations are seriously at disadvantage when it comes to knowledge and awareness of prostate cancer. Most of the citizens in developing nations have not heard of it talk more of knowing how to detect or treat it at the early stage. However, public campaigns on this have been paramount to governments that have the interest of their citizens at heart.

The questions most people seem to ask are what are the causes of prostate cancer? How can it be detected and how can it be treated? However, nobody is really sure what the specific causes are. Scientists have been able to come up with.....

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