THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA CAMPAIGNS ON VESICO VAGINAL FISTULA PREVENTION AND CONTROL IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Vesico Vaginal Fistula is an abnormal communication between the urinary bladder and the vagina that result into constant involuntary discharge of urine into the vagina. This research work evaluated the influence of media campaigns on Vesico Vaginal Fistula prevention and control in North West Nigeria. In executing this study the researcher used explanatory mixed research method. Australian National Statistical Services (NSS) online calculator was used to draw a manageable sample size of 428 from the entire population of North Western Nigeria (35, 786, 944). Three measuring instrument: questionnaire, interview and observation were used to generate both qualitative and quantitative data. Five research questions were raised and findings revealed that respondents are exposed to VVF campaigns in the region. However, the level of exposure seem to be relatively high. It was equally found out that the knowledge level of the people of North West Nigeria on VVF is high. From the study it was also found that radio and seminar /workshop forms the major sources of information to the people. The challenges associated with the use of the media in campaigns against VVF were as well discovered to include: language, frequency of the awareness campaigns and boring awareness progammes. The level of the influence of the campaigns on VVF prevention and control is moderately high. Based on the findings the study recommends that the campaigns planners should ensure they use local languages during the campaigns, skilled counselors should be used during the seminars, the awareness campaign should inform the people on the consequences of early marriage.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope of the Study
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Focus of the Review
2.1 An Overview of Vesico Vaginal Fistula
2.2 Causes of Vesico Vaginal Fistula
2.3 Psycho-Social Consequences of VVF on its Victim
2.4 Empirical Studies
2.5 Theoretical Frame work
References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample Size
3.5 Measuring Instruments
3.6 Validity and Reliability of Measuring Instrument
3.7 Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Discussion of Findings
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendations
Biography

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study
Vesico-Vaginal Fistula (VVF) is a sub type of Obstetric Fistula. It is an abnormal disorder that occurs between the urinary bladder and the vagina. This can lead to constant/involuntary discharge of urine into the vagina. It is associated with women alone; and can be caused by severe birth morbidity resulting from prolonged labour (Obstetric Fistula), severe sexual violence (Traumatic Fistula) or surgical errors (Iatrogenic Fistula).This disorder in the urinary track causes deterioration in the tissues between the vagina and the bladder or rectum. This deterioration subjects women to great discomfort, pains and embarrasses women in the control of their urine or faeces. However, while some women find support/help from families and friends, many others suffer from social isolation and most of these women are the impoverished members of the society (USAID, 2003, p. 1).


In addition to this, the report of the National Foundation on Vesico- Vagina Fistulae (2003,p.19) enumerates major causes of VVF in Nigeria which includes, prolonged labour due to cephalopelvic disproportion, the pelvic of the teenage not being fully developed as at pregnancy, making the pelvis often two small for the baby. Prolonged labour of the baby’s head against the back of the pelvic bone produces ischemic necrosis of the intervening soft tissues (Andrew, 2011, p.13). 
Early marriage is also, one of the major causes of VVF. Most of the Vesico Vaginal Fistula patients in Northern Nigeria had early marriages, 93.6% of Sokoto patients were married before or at 18years of age and 81.5% of Kano patients and 52% of Maiduguri fistula patients got married by 15years of age (Benjamin, 2010, p.294). It must also be noted that early marriage notwithstanding, it is not the only socio-cultural practices that leads to VVF. Female Genital Mutilations is a twin sister which is practiced everywhere in North Western Nigeria. The insertion of various herbs and medication for traditional treatment of various conditions such as, Dysperunia, Infertility, Congenital Vaginal Septum, Vaginal Infections, Amenorrhea, Vaginal discharge and to procure abortion. However, the preparation rather than the content of the herb damages the wall of the vagina (Lawson, 1998, p.15).

The physical, psychological and social consequences of this disorder are enormous. Robertson (1957, p.7) pointed out that, the misery of this condition has one of the most frightful affliction of human kind, “ hour by hour, night and day the leakage wet, excoriate and hurts the victim of this misfortune. Clothes are ruined, the bed becomes a night mare, sexual intercourse stops, a pariah is made and the family house is an outcast”. National foundation on Vesico Vaginal Fistula (2003.p.10)

Globally, over two million women are estimated to be living with VVF and majority of them are in Sub-Sahara Africa and South Asia. The Fistula in West
Africa ranges between 1-4 /1,000 deliveries. An annual obstetric fistula incidence is estimated at 2:11 per 1000 birth (Benjamin, 2010, p. 294).

In 2008, Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) revealed that, Nigeria has about 545/100,000 maternal morbidity ratio, thereby contributing about 10% of the global burden. Similarly, majority of delivery occurs at home, while births attended by skilled Birth Attendants are estimated to be only 39% with very low contraceptives utilization rate (NDHS, 2008, p. 32).

In a recent report by the United Nation Population Fund Agency (2010, p. 22), it notes that, VVF and maternal death are immensely associated with complications related to pregnancies, and childbirth, and this has continued to pose a threat to women. The prevalence in Nigeria ranges from 100,000 to 1,000,000 cases, while the incidence is recently estimated at 20,000 cases per annum (UNPFA, 2010, p. 23). However, it is evident that Vesico Vagina Fistula is rampart in the Northern part of Nigeria due to several prevailing social-cultural factors such as, early marriage /pregnancies and low status of woman coupled with poor access and utilization of antenatal services (UNPFA, 2010, p. 23).

The Federal Government of Nigeria through the Federal Ministry of Health (FMH) in conjunction with United Nation Population Fund Agency (UNFPA) recognized that Vesico Vagina Fistula cannot be addressed in isolation but as part of an integrated effort to improve sexual and reproductive health, including the aim of reducing maternal mortality and morbidity and as such, National Strategic Frame Work for Eradication of fistula in Nigeria was developed to ensure a......


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