STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AS A TOOL FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN SELECTED NIGERIAN DEPOSIT MONEY BANKS, IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

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ABSTRACT


The study focused on strategic management as a tool for the attainment of organizational performance in selected Nigerian deposit money banks in Enugu Metropolis. The specific objectives sought to: ascertain the extent value chain affects growth in Nigerian deposit money banks profitability, determine the extent of effects of strategic change on market share in Nigerian deposit money banks productivity, examine the extent strategic leadership affects customer satisfaction in Nigerian deposit money banks effectiveness and determine the key challenges of adopting strategic management in Nigerian deposit money banks. The research design adopted in this study was survey which is characterized by direct interaction with the population. The target population of the study is 2093 comprising both the senior and junior staff of the three selected commercial banks in Enugu metropolis Nigeria. Taro Yamane’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 336. The key instrument of data collection was questionnaire and oral interview guide. The questionnaire was structured in 5-point Likert scale. The data were presented using sample table frequency and the formulated hypotheses were tested using simple linear regression and Friedman Chi-square. The study found that value chain to a great extent affected growth in Nigerian deposit money banks profitability (r = 0.882; F = 1.057E3; t = 11.249; p = 0.05). Also the study discovered that strategic change to a great extent had effect on market share in Nigerian deposit money banks productivity (r = 0.917; F = 11. 596E3; t = 21.169; p = 0.05). Strategic leadership to a great extent affected customer satisfaction in Nigerian deposit money banks effectiveness (r = 0. 573; F= 148.292; t = 5.866; p = 0.05).Further the study revealed that economic and poor structures were the key challenges of adopting strategic management in Nigerian deposit money banks (X2cal = 492.352 >X2critical = 11.14, p 0.000 < α = 0.05).The study concludes that, the performance of deposit money Banks depend on the types of strategic they adopted. The study recommends that the organizations should intensify every effort to assess and monitor both internal and external variables in order to checkmate the unprecedented failure that could be controlled by continuous improvement.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract
List of Tables
List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Research Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope of the Study
1.8       Limitations of the Study
1.9       Operational Definition of Terms
1.10     Profile of the Banks under Study
            References

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptual Review
2.3       Challenges of Strategic Management Adoption/ Implementation
2.4       Prospects of Strategic Management
2.5       Theoretical Review
2.6       Empirical Review
2.7       Summary of Reviewed Related Literature
2.8       Gaps in the Literature on Strategic Management and Organizational Performance
            References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Sources of Data
3.3.1    Primary Source
3.3.2    Secondary Source
3.4       Population of the Study
3.5       Sample Size Determination
3.6       Description of the Research Instrument
3.7       Validity of the Research Instrument
3.8       Reliability of the Research Instrument
3.9       Method of Data Analysis
3.10     Decision Rule
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Return Rate of Questionnaire
4.3       Data Presentation
4.3.1    Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
4.3.2    Presentation of Data According to Objectives of the Study
4.3.2.1 Extent Value Chain affects growth in Nigerian Deposit Banks
4.3.2.2 Extent of Effects of Strategic Change on Market Share in Nigerian Deposit Banks and Productivity
4.3.2.3 Extent Strategic Leadership affects Customer Satisfaction in Nigerian Deposit Bank and Effectiveness
4.3.2.4 Key Challenges of adopting Strategic Management in Deposit Bank
4.4       Test of Hypotheses
4.4.1    Test of Hypothesis One
4.4.2    Test of Hypothesis Two
4.4.3    Test of Hypothesis Three
4.4.4    Test of Hypothesis Four
4.5       Discussion of Results

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Contribution to Knowledge
5.5       Areas for Further Research


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background of the Study

Strategic management is a disciplined approach that utilizes the principles and process of management to identify the corporate objective or mission of any business. It determines an appropriate target to satisfy the objective, recognize existing opportunities and constraints in the environment, and device a rational practical way by which an objective can be achieved. Strategic management is a technique used by organizations to create favorable future as well as help helping them to prosper. The key to strategic management is to understand that people communicating and working together will create this future (Harfield, 1998).

In other words, strategic management emanates from both the process and philosophy for determining and controlling the organizational relationship in its dynamic environment. As a process, it attempts to define approaches and techniques aimed at assisting the management in adapting to the dynamics of today, through the use of objectives and strategies. Strategic management endeavours to achieve effective and efficient programs to accomplish the organization’s mission. As a philosophy, it changes how the manager looks at competitors, customers, markets and even the organization itself. Its primary objective is to stimulate management’s awareness of the strategic implication of environmental events and internal decision. Contemporary organizations see strategic management to be concerned primarily with actions organizations take to achieve competitive advantage and create value for the organization and stakeholders (Porter, 1981).


Lawrence and William (1988) define strategic management as a stream of decisions and actions, which lead to the development of an effective strategy or strategies to help achieve corporate objectives. The strategic management process is the way in which strategists determine objectives and make strategic decisions. Strategic management’s main focus is the achievement of organizational goals taking into consideration the internal and external environmental factors.
Porter (1985) argues that the essence of formulating comprehensive strategy is relating a company to its environment. Strategic management permits the systematic management of change. It enables organization to purposefully mobilize resources towards a desired future.

Chandler (1962) posits that any effective successful strategy is dependent on structure, thus to achieve any effective economic performance the organization needs to alter its structure. Strategic management is congruent with the quality movement's emphasis on continuous improvement. Indeed, the emphasis on anticipating the needs of stakeholders is a critical component of external analysis.

Shrivastava (1986) eulogizes better on the meaning of strategic field using five operational criteria, derived from Giddens (1979). These indicate its ideological nature: the factual under-determination of action norms; universalization of sectional interests; denial of conflict and contradiction; normative idealization of sectional goals; and the naturalization of the status quo. Shrivastava concluded that strategic management was undeniably ideological, and that strategic discourse helped legitimize existing power structures and resource inequalities. Drawing from the above Shrivastava (1986) sought emancipation in the 'acquisition of communicative competence by all subjects that allows them to participate in discourse aimed at liberation from constraints on interaction'. He also called on researchers 'to generate less ideologically value-laden and more universal knowledge about strategic management of organizations'.
Knights and Morgan (1991) opine that corporate strategy is a set of discourses and practices which transform managers and employees alike into subjects who secure their sense of purpose and reality by formulating, evaluating and conducting strategy'. Managers cannot stand outside of ideology to impose their strategies on unwitting workers. Rather, they too are entangled in discursive webs. Strategy constructs a myth of commonality of organizational purpose by positing lofty and unattainable aspirations (Harfield, 1998). While projecting solidarity of purpose and the universality of the interests of senior managers and stockholders, the discourse of strategy legitimates organizational hierarchy with differential influence and rewards. The importance attached to strategy also implies that employees who work outside of what is identified as the strategic core of an organization make a lesser contribution and therefore cannot be expected to participate, even marginally, in decisions for which others are responsible. It also provides a rationale for differentiating the pay and conditions of 'core' and 'peripheral' employees. The need to assert the status of an elite group of 'strategic managers' is perhaps particularly acute in advanced economies where manual labour is declining and traditional divisions between task execution and conception are loosened up. From the foregoing we can draw our inference that effective successful strategy is dependent on structure, thus to achieve any effective economic performance the organizations needs to alter its structure. Strategic management is congruent with the quality movement's emphasis on continuous improvement and increase performance of an organization.

Stoney (1998) discovers that in the strategic management model, responsibility for corporate level decision-making rests within a core of strategic functions discharged from the day-to-day responsibilities of operational activities, these being devolved to the lowest possible level of control. Undistracted by operational matters and line responsibility, the elite (key functionaries) often the 'executive board', is left free to concentrate on strategic thinking and decision-making. Each banking organization's experience with strategic management is unique, reflecting the organization's distinct culture, environment, resources, structure, management style, and other organizational features. However, experience abound that working with leaders and managers in various organizations indicates that similar questions and concerns develop as organizations implement strategic management. Meyer (1991) further opines that strategic management can be distinguished from other organizational sciences by its emphasis on identifying, explaining, and predicting the determinants of organizational performance. The field’s central research question is ‘‘why do some firms outperform others?’’ Unlike efforts to explain organizational outcomes conducted in other disciplines, strategic management research has long recognized that phenomena originating from several levels of analysis play a role in determining organizational effectiveness. To maximize the chances of good performance, a firm needs to occupy a prosperous strategic group within a lucrative industry, for example the commercial banks in Nigeria. In these loci this study stands to investigate the impacts of strategic management as a tool for the attainment of organizational performance in Nigerian commercial banks.....

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