PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAKFAST CEREALS FROM BLENDS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), MAIZE (Zea mays) AND DEFATTED COCONUT (Cocos nucifera)

For more Food Science & Technology projects click here

ABSTRACT

Six samples were generated by mixing the flours (AYB+ maize composite) with graded levels of defatted coconut flour (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50), sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract and water. Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (280°C) -a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semi-dextrinize the starch in order to generate dry ready to eat products from blends of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (Zea mays) and defatted coconut (Cocos nucifera) cake. They were subjected to proximate, functional, sensory, minerals, vitamins, anti-nutrients, amino acids and microbial analyses. The products obtained were also served dry (without added water), with cold water, cold milk and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix (commercial control) to evaluate for appearance, consistency, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a 9 point Hedonic scale (1=dislike extremely, 9=like extremely). The results revealed the following ranges: proximate parameters (%): moisture (3.38-4.20), protein (15.68-18.26), fat (1.84-2.02), crude fiber (6.70-9.08), ash (5.29-7.36), carbohydrates (60.96-64.53), and energy (327.54-347.72Kcal). Functional properties were: pH (4.70- 6.56), bulk density (0.29-0.71g/ml), water absorption capacity (68.31- 76.39%), oil absorption capacity (0.87- 1.32%), foam capacity (2.48- 3.49%), viscosity (19.73-31.08%), invitro-protein digestibility (66.30-82.2%), and gelation capacity (75.32- 89.66%). Mineral analysis showed the following ranges (mg/100g): calcium (169-213), magnesium (290-430), potassium (88-191), manganese (5.92-7.99), iron (9.81-14.1), copper (0.58- 0.86), sodium (7.62- 9.97), zinc (2.11-3.35). Vitamins analysis also revealed the following ranges (mg/100g): B1 (0.09-0.31), B2, (0.32-0.43), B6 (0.13- 0.26), B12 (0.74-1.01) and C (1.70- 2.65). Results for the anti-nutrients showed the following ranges (mg/100g): phytates, (0.38-1.25), oxalate (0.076-0.302), hemagluttinins, (0.10- 0.29) and tannins (0.00064-0.0016). Amino acids detected ranged as follows (mg/100g): phenylalanine (190-320), valine (160-240), threonine (560-810), tryptophan (380-520), isoleucine (110-220), methionine (10-100), histidine (160-240), arginine (180-510), lysine(90-250), leucine (590-810), cysteine (210-340), alanine (110-220), glycine (460-750), serine(80-120), aspartic acid (10-40), glutamic acid (10-40), asparagine (190-520), glutamine (100-300) and proline (30-50). Microbial analysis revealed the following ranges: bacteria count, 0.5x10 -1.51x102 Cfu/g, mold count, 0.0x10- 0.6x10 Cfu/g, while coliform was not detected. The sensory results revealed that the samples obtained were acceptable to the panelists, and there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the control (Weetabix) and the samples in terms of overall acceptability when served with cold water, while significant (p<0 .05="" and="" cold="" differences="" dry="" existed="" hot="" milk.="" milk="" served="" span="" when="" with="">

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of Research Problem
1.2       Significance of the study
1.3       Objective of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Breakfast and its importance
2.1.1    Constituents of a Healthy Breakfast
2.1.2    History of Breakfast Cereals
2.1.3    Classification of Breakfast Cereals
2.2       Cereals
2.2.1    Maize Production and Utilization
2.2.2    Varieties of Maize
2.2.3    Nutritional Value of Maize
2.3       Legumes
2.3.1    World Production of Legumes
2.3.2    Nutritional Relevance of Legumes
2.3.3    Anti-nutritional Factors in Legumes
2.4       Underutilized Legumes
2.5       African Yam Beans (AYB)
2.5.1    Nutrient Composition of African Yam Beans
2.5.2    Potentials of African Yam Beans
2.5.3    Factors Limiting the Use of African Yam Beans
2.6       Coconut
2.6.1    Origin and Morphology of Coconut
2.6.2    Natural habitat of Coconut
2.6.3    Nutritional Value of Coconut
2.6.4    Coconut in Traditional and Modern Medicine
2.6.5    Coconut as a Source of Dietary Fiber in Foods
2.7       Production and Utilization of Sorghum
2.7.1    The use of Sorghum for the production of malt extract

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Material Procurement
3.1.1    Sample Preparation
3.1.2    Production of Maize Flour
3.1.3    Production of African Yam Beans Flour
3.1.4    Production of defatted Coconut flour
3.1.5    Production of Sorghum Malt Extract
3.2       Products Formulation
3.3       Analysis of Samples
3.3.1    Proximate Composition
3.3.1.1 Determination of Moisture Content
3.3.1.2 Determination of Crude Fat Content
3.3.1.3 Determination of Protein Content
3.3.1.4 Determination of total Ash Content
3.3.1.5 Determination of Crude Fiber Content
3.3.1.6 Determination of Carbohydrate
3.3.1.7 Determination of Energy Value
3.4       Functional Properties Determination
3.4.1    Determination of pH
3.4.2    Determination of Bulk Density
3.4.3    Determination of Water/ Fat Absorption Capacity
3.4.4    Determination of Foam Capacity
3.4.5    Determination of Viscosity
3.4.6    Determination of In-vitro Protein Digestibility
3.4.7    Determination of Gelation Capacity
3.5       Sensory Evaluation
3.6       Determination of Anti-nutritional Factors
3.6.1    Determination of Phytate or Phytic Acid
3.6.2    Determination of Tannin
3.6.3    Determination of Oxalate
3.6.4    Determination of Hemagluttinin
3.7       Determination of Mineral content
3.8       Determination of Vitamin content
3.8.1    Determination of Vitamin B1
3.8.2    Determination of Vitamin B2
3.8.3    Determination of Vitamin B6
3.8.4    Determination of Vitamin B12
3.8.5    Determination of Vitamin C
3.9       Determination of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids
3.10     Microbiological Examination

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Proximate Composition
4.1.1    Moisture
4.1.2    Protein
4.1.3    Fat
4.1.4    Ash
4.1.5    Crude Fiber
4.1.6    Carbohydrate
4.1.7    Energy
4.2       Functional Properties
4.2.1    pH
4.2.2    Bulk Density
4.2.3    Water Absorption Capacity
4.2.4    Oil Absorption Capacity
4.2.5    Foam Capacity
4.2.6    Viscosity
4.2.7    In-Vitro Protein Digestibility
4.2.8    Gelatin Capacity
4.3       Sensory Evaluation
4.3.1    Attribute Perception of Samples Served Dry
4.3.2    Attribute Perception of Samples Served With Cold Water
4.3.3    Attribute Perception of Samples Served With Cold Milk
4.3.4    Attribute Perception of Samples Served With Hot Milk
4.3.5    Effect of Serving Style on Sensory Attributes of the Samples
4.4       Mineral Composition of the Breakfast cereals
4.4.1    Calcium
4.4.2    Magnesium
4.4.3    Potassium
4.4.4    Manganese
4.4.5    Iron
4.4.6    Copper
4.4.7    Sodium
4.4.8    Zinc
4.5       Vitamin Composition o f the Breakfast cereals
4.5.1    Vitamin B1
4.5.2    Vitamin B2
4.5.3    Vitamin B6
4.5.4    Vitamin B12
4.5.5    Vitamin C
4.6       Anti-Nutritional Factors
4.6.1    Phytate/Phytic Acid
4.6.2    Oxalate
4.6.3    Hemagluttinin
4.6.3    Tannin
4.7       Amino Acid Profile
4.8       Microbial Examination

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
            REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                   INTRODUCTION
The word “breakfast” is a compound of "break" and "fast" which literally means “breaking the fast” from the last meal or snack from the previous day. Breakfast is the nutritional foundation or the first meal of the day (Kowtaluk, 2001). Nutritional experts have referred to breakfast as the most important meal of the day, citing studies that found people who skip breakfast to be disproportionately likely to have problems with concentration, metabolism, and weight (Mayo Clinic, 2009). Breakfast meals vary widely in different cultures around the world. It often includes a carbohydrate source such as cereals, fruit and or vegetable, protein, sometimes dairy, and beverage.
In developing countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, breakfast meals for both adults and infants are based on local staple diet made from cereals, legumes, and cassava and potatoes tubers. However, the most widely eaten breakfast foods are cereals (Kent, 1983).
Breakfast cereals are legally defined as foods obtained by swelling, grinding, rolling or flaking of any cereal (Sharma and Caralli, 2004). They can be categorized into traditional (hot) cereals that require further cooking or heating before consumption and ready-to-eat (cold) cereals that can be consumed from the box or with the addition of milk (Fast 1990; Tribelhorn, 1991). Ready to eat breakfast cereals are increasingly gaining acceptance in most developing countries, and gradually displacing most traditional diets that serve as breakfast due to convenience, nutritional values, improved income, and status symbol and job demands especially among urban dwellers. According to Jones (2003), instantized and ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals facilitate independence because of their ease of preparation which means that children and adolescents can be responsible for their own breakfast or snacks. Such foods may need to be reconstituted, pre-heated in a vessel or allowed to thaw if frozen before consumption, or they may be eaten directly without further treatment (Okaka, 2005). The common cereal products in Nigeria include NASCO Cornflakes, Good morning corn flakes, Kellogg’s cornflakes, NABISCO flakes, Weetabix, Quaker Oats, Rice crisps, among others. A study has clearly shown that 42% of 10-year-olds and 35% of young adults consumed cereal at non-breakfast occasions (Haines et al., 1996). This may be consumed dry as snack food, with or without cold or hot milk, based on their location, availability of resources and habits.
In recent times food product developers have incorporated legumes into traditional cereal formulations as nutrient diversification strategy as well as efforts to reduce the incidence of malnutrition among vulnerable groups. Results from previous studies (Onweluzo and Nnamuchi, 2009), indicated that most cereals are limited in some essential amino acids especially threonine and tryptophan. Though cereals are rich in lysine (especially the yellow maize), they cannot effectively provide the nutrients required by the body, especially in the morning when the supply of nutrients from the previous day is exhausted. Cereals can however, be supplemented with most oil seeds and legumes which are rich in essential amino acids particularly the sulphur-containing ones (Kanu et al., 2007). Thus a combination of such food stuffs will improve the nutritional value of the resulting blend compared to the individual components alone. Animal products such as meat, eggs, milk, and cheese are known to contain the essential amino acids that could complement this deficiency in cereal foods. However, consumption of proteins from plant sources (Legumes) is encouraged (Ofuya and Akhidue, 2005), since combination of legumes and grains provide biologically high quality and cheaper protein that contains all essential amino acids in proper proportion and their amino acids complement each other (Okaka, 2005).
Legumes or pulses are edible fruits or seeds of pod bearing plants (Sivasanka, 2005). Their seeds are put to a myriad of uses, both nutritional and industrial, and in some parts of the developing world they are the principal source of protein for humans (Trevor et al., 2005). Legumes have high protein content, in the range of 20-40%; about twice that of cereals and several times that in root tubers (Sivasanka, 2005). The common legumes in Nigeria include, Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Soybeans (Glycine max), Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan), Groundnuts (Arachis hypogea), African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), etc. (Okaka, 2005).

A variety of legumes, including African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) are under exploited or underutilized (Ebiokpo et al., 1998). African yam bean is the most economically important among the seven species of Sphenostylis (Potter, 1992). It is a lesser- known legume of the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world which has attracted research attention in recent times (Azeke et al., 2005). It is a climbing legume with exceptional ability for adaptation to low lands and takes about five to seven months to grow and produce mature seeds (Apata and Ologhoba, 1990). AYB seeds can be brown, white, speckled or marbled with a hilum having a dark-brown border. The seeds form a valuable and prominent source of plant proteins in the diet of Nigerians and are cultivated as a pulse for human consumption. The Ibo people of the south eastern Nigeria call it “Okpodudu, Ijiriji, Azama” and the seeds may be boiled and eaten with local seasoning, starchy roots, tubers and fruit or converted to paste for the production of a type of “moi-moi”. The seeds can also be roasted and eaten with palm kernels (Enwere, 1998). AYB, a non-conventional pulse has been brought into focus by some previous workers as it is known to have a nutritive and culinary value (Agunbiade and Ojezele, 2010).
Nutritionists recommend 20-35 grams of dietary fiber a day which could be obtained from sources of dietary fiber such as whole grains, legumes, and nuts. Coconut is an excellent source of dietary fiber, which has been made available as a dietary supplement (Bruce Fife, 2010). Coconut dietary fiber is made from finely ground, dried, and defatted coconut and has higher fiber content than many other fiber supplements.
Formulating a breakfast cereal with blends of these raw materials highlighted above could bring about diversification in the utilization of indigenous underutilized food crops for national sustenance.


1.1        STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
African yam bean has been recognized to have vast genetic and economic potentials, especially in reducing malnutrition among Africans; however the crop has not received adequate research attention, thereby limiting its contribution to food security and preventing potential food crisis. Increasing the use of underutilized crops is one of the better ways to reduce nutritional, environmental and financial vulnerability in times of change (Jaenicke and Pasiecznik, 2009).

Over time, some conditions have negatively influenced the productivity and acceptability of African yam bean among cultivators, consumers, and research scientists. These include, characteristic hardness of the seed coat (Oshodi et al., 1995) which increases the cost and time of cooking, presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANF) or secondary metabolites (Machuka and Okeola, 2000) and the tendency to cause flatulence in humans (Rockland and Nishi, 1979). Therefore, it is of interest to process African yam bean seeds into acceptable, ready-to-eat and safe products together with other locally available materials including maize and defatted coconut flour......

For more Food Science & Technology projects click here
__________________________________________________________________________
This is a Postgraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

Article: How to Write a Research Proposal

Most students and beginning researchers do not fully understand what a research proposal means, nor do they understand ...

Popular Posts