NEWSPAPER COVERAGE OF DIABETES IN NIGERIA: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF SELECTED NATIONAL DAILIES

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ABSTRACT

This study investigates newspaper coverage of diabetes in Nigeria with specific emphasis on frequency, interpretative of text, Volume and prominence coverage. Four newspapers- The Punch, Leadership, Daily Sun and Daily Trust were selected for the study, with views to represent the northern and Southern divide of the country. The study duration was two years (January 1st 2012 – December 31st 2014) while Holsti’s Inter Coder reliability was applied to determine the reliability for the study and this yielded 0.84 which was considered high. Content analysis was adopted for the study, while result showed among others, that out of the 416 editions that were sampled, 201 (48%) editions had stories on diabetes while the remaining 215 (52%) had no stories on the diabetes disease whatsoever. Findings further revealed that 51.7% of the stories on diabetes were non interpretative/non educative. With regards to volume of coverage, it was found that most of the stories on diabetes were in small volume as 51.7% were on quarter page. Finally, the result indicates that less prominence was given to diabetes issues. This is because, 50. 7% of the stories were found on the inside page while only 14.4% were on the front page. Based on the result of this study, the researcher concludes that the two newspapers failed to properly set agenda on diabetes, thus, failing short of their social responsibility to the Nigerian society. The researcher recommends among others that Nigerian newspapers should improve in their coverage of diabetes considering its deadly nature.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Tables of Contents
List of Table
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.2       Conceptual Review
2.2.1    Diabetes: Historic Overview
2.2.2    Causes, Symptoms and Control of Diabetes
2.2.3    Diabetes in Nigeria
2.2.4    Nigerian Newspapers and the Imperative for Health Coverage
2.3       Review of Empirical Studies
2.3.1    Clinical studies on Diabetes
2.3.2    Studies on Awareness and Control of Diabetes
2.3.3    Studies on Newspaper Coverage of Health Issues
2.4       Theoretical Framework
1.4.1    Social Responsibility

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of the Study
3.3: Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.4.1 Unit of Measurement/Analysis
3.6       Instrument of data Collection
3.7       Validity
3.8       Reliability of Instrument
3.9       Coding Method (Method of Data Collection)

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
41.       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
5.4       Limitation of the Study
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.8 Background to the Study
Diabetes is one of the commonest and dangerous diseases that have posed challenge to medical experts globally. Diabetes often refers to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both (WHO, 2015). Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). Recent estimates indicate there were 171 million people in the world with diabetes in the year 2000 and this is projected to increase to 366 million by 2030 (Chinenye & Young 2011). The World Health Organization (2015) reports that only in 2014, the global prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 9% among adults aged 18+ years. According to the world health body, in 2012, an estimated 1.5 million deaths were directly caused by diabetes and that more than 80% of diabetes deaths occur in low- and middle- income countries. WHO projects that diabetes will be the 7th leading cause of death in 2030. Consequently, WHO avers that healthy diet, regular physical activity, maintaining a normal body weight and avoiding tobacco use, can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes.


This increase in prevalence, according to WHO, is expected to be more in the Middle Eastern crescent, Sub-Saharan Africa and India. In Africa, the estimated prevalence of diabetes is 1% in rural areas, up to 7% in urban sub- Sahara Africa, and between 8-13% in more developed areas such as South Africa and in population of India origin. The prevalence in Nigeria varies from 0.65% in rural Mangu (North) to 11% in urban Lagos (Chinenye & Young 2011). The Diabetes Association of Nigeria (2015) lists the types of Diabetes in Nigeria to include: Type 2 diabetes (Non-insulin dependent type and constitutes the

majority). Type 1diabetes (Insulin dependent type) and Gestational (Pregnancy induced/pregnancy related).

Type 1 diabetes previously known as insulin-dependent, juvenile or childhood-onset) is characterized by deficient insulin production and requires daily administration of insulin. (Tucker, LeCheminant, & Bailey, 2015, Olamoyegun Ogunmola, Oladosu, Kolawole 2013). The cause of type 1 diabetes is not known and it is not preventable with current knowledge. Symptom includes excessive excretion of urine (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), constant hunger, weight loss, vision changes and fatigue. These symptoms may occur suddenly. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset) results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes comprises 90% of people with diabetes around the world and is largely the result of excess body weight and physical inactivity. (WHO 2015). Gestational diabetes is hyperglycaemia with blood glucose values above normal but below those diagnostic of diabetes, occurring during pregnancy. Women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and at delivery. They are also at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the future. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed through prenatal screening, rather than reported symptoms (WHO 2015). Nigeria is one of the 32 countries of International Diabetes Federation in African region. According to the federation, there were 3.747 million cases of diabetes in Nigeria in 2014. The result of the Federation further revealed that the prevalence of diabetes in adults (20-79) is 4.6%. The number of cases of adult that are undiagnosed was put at 1.723.4. Cost per person diabetes was put at $178.4, while the number of deaths in adults due to diabetes was put at 105,091. These figures give an insight into the prevalence and danger posed by diabetes in Nigeria.
Diabetes is fast assuming a more dangerous dimension and this calls for awareness creation through newspaper coverage. Commenting on the importance of awareness creation, Chinenye and Ogbara (2013) write:

Awareness is the key to diabetes health, and the platform for creating awareness in our community include masquerades (“nwutam” from Ndoki and Opobo), festivals, and the traditional weekly markets (eke, orie, afor, nkwo) where all and sundry attend, providing a mass forum for communication. The use and interpretation of Diabetes Conversation Maps (a socio-educational tool) during community awareness is highly recommended; splitting the ‘Ohanaeze’ (communal assembly) into small groups of 3-10 persons.

The assertion above stresses the place of awareness creation as a means of combating diabetes. The only difference is that the researchers lay more emphasis on traditional communication, than on modern means of communication like newspaper, magazine, radio and television. Newspaper coverage of diabetes can go a long way in creating awareness on the disease and also educates people on its causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment. By the coverage of diabetes, newspapers would have set agenda on it. The agenda setting function of the media to give attention to issues of more importance for the attention of the general public (Asemah, 2011, Gever 2014 and McQuail 2005). Folarin (1998) cited in Gever (2014) averts that the media do these factors like frequency of reporting, prominence given to the reports through headline displays, pictures and layout in newspapers, magazines, films, graphics or timing on radio and television. Also, the degree of conflict generated in the reports and cumulative media specific effects over time. Newspapers are powerful medium of communication, through newspapers, important information are disseminated to the general public. The media as an institution, has a role to play in health communication....

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