INFLUENCE OF OWNERSHIP ON MEDIA CREDIBILITY: A STUDY OF EBONYI BROADCASTING CORPORATION, (EBBC), ABAKALIKI

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ABSTRACT

Conscious of the far-reaching effects audience trust and confidence could have on the effectiveness of mass communication, there is perennial craving for credibility on the part of mass media organizations. Media credibility consciousness derives from its proclamation as corporate citizens and the fourth estate of the realm. This study focused on the influence of ownership on the corporate image of media organizations. It considered ownership structures not as adjunct, but the major factor of credibility of media messages. The survey method was used to get analyzable response from the audience of Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) Abakaliki. And the findings showed that while significant value is attached to mass media ownership patterns and structures by audience, there is, at present, predominantly a negative ownership influence on credibility of most Nigerian media organizations. The findings also pinpointed that undue ownership interference in media operations is the major factor responsible for widening credibility gaps between media organizations and their audience and posited that such credibility slump can be corrected by adopting total quality management.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Objectives of Study
1.4       Significance of Study
1.5       Research Questions
1.6       Scope of Study
1.7       Definition of Terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.2       Media Ownership in Nigeria: Historical Perspective
2.2       Credibility: Its Components
2.3       Credibility and Media Ownership: A Critical Analysis
2.4       Implications of Low Credibility on Media Organization
2.5       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design:
3.2       Population of the Study
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Instrument of Data Collection:
3.6       Procedure for Data Collection
3.7       Validity of Research Instrument
3.8       Reliability of Research Instrument
3.9       Method of Data Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Tables/Graphs/Research Questions for Analysis
4.2       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
5.4       Suggestion for Further Research
BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study
Communication media are on the move, constantly evolving, and changing the world we live in. Their diversity and impacts have ushered in the contemporary information societies where the exchange of information remains the dominant economic activity and source of power. Consequently, individuals, interest groups and even governments have intensified efforts to own and control at least a media outfit, with which to tell their own side of the story.

However, the age-long impediment to the right of man to communicate continues to rear its ugly head, only undergoing contextual metamorphosis with time. For instance, in the agora age, the right to communicate incurred the pangs of conservatism in the guise of freedom of opinion. During the Gutenberg galaxy, it suffered suppression as freedom of expression. In the 19th century, it acquired the name press freedom under the battering ram of religious interest and political authorities, while credibility question is the current nomenclature under which the right of man to communicate is gagged(MacBride, et al 1981:172).

It should be noted that, the advent of powerful electronic media outlets in the early decades of the 20th, Century, and their subsequent deregulation in many countries, (including Nigeria in 1992] are all part of the struggle to guarantee the right to communicate. Thus, the proliferation of media organizations, increased feedback mechanisms via digital technologies and wider audience outreach are some of the new dimensions of communication potentials won through the struggle. Dominick (1996:222) agrees that the emergence of broadcasting, with its “talk shows programmes is simply democracy in action and a triumph of free expression”.
The above, notwithstanding, there is no denying the fact that any media organization (whether government or privately owned) which desires to make the needed impact in the contemporary competitive media environment must pass through the acid test of audience trust and confidence. It is no longer enough to garbage in and out of the media any stuff and hope by so doing, a media organization is assured of successful media practice. The evolution of contemporary active audience and the prevalence of performance excesses on the part of individual media outfits have created a shift in the understanding of media credibility as a virtue which does not reside intrinsically in an object, person or piece of information, but assigned to a media house as a result of a judgment made by a subject (Savolain, 2007:5).

According to the Society of Professional Journalists (2004:1), “credibility refers to objective and subjective components of believability of a source or message… its components include trustworthiness and expertise defined from the user perspective”. Credibility, as the Society (2004) further notes, has links with media roles and motives, user demographics and values, prior attitude on issues and media use. It can weaken the validity and acceptability of a message. (Nworah, 2007:3).


It is the opinion of Lewis (2003:1) that corporate organizations (including the media) experience pressures from an increasing interest across the gamut of stakeholders, from consumers and employees to investors and legislators. This increasing interest, Lewis (2003:1) further notes, “is in the values and standards of the companies behind their products and brands”. In order to engender public trust and confidence, Lewis (2003) explains that putting these values and standards at the heart of business, not an adjunct to commercial activity, should be taken more seriously and be integrated further into the business vision and brand management. Herein, lies the essence of good management pattern.
But the question is, can effective management style be divorced from the control of owner’s vision and interest? According to Owuamalam (2006:137),

Ownership deals with the right to possession of a tangible property. It means that the property in question can be specifically defined, to the exclusion of any other interest, apart from the legal possessor, as bestowed by law. It is the law that defines the nature of ownership and parties that may claim right of possession.

Ebonyi Broadcasting Corporation (EBBC) 98.10 MHZ Frequency Modulation was established in 1997; following the creation of Ebonyi State along with other five other states in Nigeria on October 1st, 1996. Earlier, the pioneer Military Administrator of Ebonyi State, Navy Captain Walter Feghabo, had applied for both radio and television licenses to NBC on March 3, 1997. So, from inception, EBBS has been a government owned station.

Owuamalam (2006:138) contends that

the ownership of broadcasting establishments becomes the sole preserve of governments, expected to use it for the propagation of national objectives and the promotion of freedom of expression by all. The monopoly of broadcasting as a government affair is therefore rooted in the sovereignty of the state and the recognition that public establishments are safe in the hands of the ‘wise men’, selected to govern the people by the people.

Government ownership pattern, according to Anyaegbudike (2002:43), is known to influence the minds of people and affect the climate of opinion over issues of public concern.


It, therefore, becomes imperative to critically examine the influence of ownership on credibility of media messages. It is in an attempt to unravel the mysteries behind owner’s prerogatives and how they can be used to boost credibility of mediated messages that have necessitated this study. It is believed that a well-planned and structured research will help media organizations appreciate the extent to which their ownership patterns and control can influence the credibility of their messages to their audience.....

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