CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PROCESSED TENDER LEAVES AND HUSKS OF COWPEA AND ORGANOLEPTIC ATTRIBUTES OF THEIR SOUPS AS CONSUMED IN TIV COMMUNITIES, BENUE STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

The study examined the chemical composition of fresh, sundried tender leaves and husks of cowpea ‘Adengee’ (Vigna unguiculata) and organoleptic attributes of their traditional soups. Information on processing, preparation and utilization of soup meals based on cowpea leaves and husks were obtained during the focus group discussion. The tender leaves and husks were parboiled and sundried. Proximate, micronutrients, phytochemicals and antinutrient levels were determined using standard procedures. The soups based on fresh and sundried leaves and husks were analysed prior to sensory evaluation. The data collected were statistically analysed using means, standard deviation and standard error. All values were based on residual moisture. Protein for dried leaves was higher (p<0 .05="" 0.75="" 1.10mg="" 10.86="" 13.95="" 20.42="" 21.98="" 30.22="" 31.44="" 33.30="" 4.82="" 5.46re="" 6.11="" 7.70="" 9-point="" 9.10="" a="" acceptable.="" agricultural="" all="" also="" amongst="" and="" anti="" appreciable.="" appreciable="" are="" as="" ash="" attributes="" available="" based="" be="" benefits="" both="" broaden="" by="" c="" calcium="" carbohydrate="" carotene="" comparable.="" consuming="" consumption="" content="" control="" cowpea="" cultivation="" decreased="" demonstrate="" developing="" differed="" diversification.="" dried="" dry="" drying.="" drying="" due="" extension="" extensively="" farmers.="" fat="" fibre="" flavonoids="" for="" fresh="" generally="" good="" governmental="" had="" half="" have="" he="" health="" high="" higher="" husks.="" husks="" in="" increased="" information="" institutes="" iodine="" iron.="" is="" itamin="" its="" judged="" justify="" knowledge="" leaves.="" leaves="" levels="" low.="" lower="" made="" micronutrients="" minerals="" more="" multi-purpose="" nature.="" nutrient="" nutrients="" nutritional="" of="" often="" on="" organoleptic="" outreach="" p="" packaged="" performance="" personnel="" phosphorus="" polyphenols="" potential="" potentials="" practices="" processed="" processing="" production="" promoted="" promotion="" properties="" protein="" rather="" reduced="" related="" relative="" research="" respectively="" results="" samples="" saponins="" scale.="" scores="" seeds.="" should="" significantly="" similarly="" soup="" soups="" span="" such="" sun="" surprising="" tannins="" than="" that="" the="" their="" there="" therefore="" these="" those="" three="" to="" value="" varied="" varieties="" variety="" volatile="" vs.25.13="" vs.34.05="" vs.34.10="" vs.5.07="" vs.5.58="" vs.="" was="" well-yielding="" well="" were="" which="" with="" yields="" zinc="">

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INRODUCTION
1.1       Background of study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Objectives of study
1.3.1    General objective
1.3.2    Specific objective
1.4       Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Legumes
2.2       Cowpea
2.3       Cowpea leaves and husks (vegetables)
2.3.1    Chemical composition of cowpea leaves
2.4       Vegetables and their uses
2.5       Nutrient composition of green leafy vegetables
2.5.1    Moisture content
2.5.2    Protein
2.5.3    Ether extract (fat)
2.5.4    Vitamins
2.5.5    Anti nutrient content
2.6       Food processing
2.6.1    Processing of vegetables
2.6.2    Blanching
2.6.3    Drying
2.6.4    Effects of processing on nutrient content of leafy vegetables

CHAPTER THREE: MATERAILS AND METHODS
3.1       Study area
3.2       Sampling procedures
3.3       Focus group discussion
3.4       Processing of samples
3.4.1    Cowpea leaves
3.4.2    Cowpea husks
3.5       Purchase of foods
3.5.1    Pounded yam preparation
3.6       soup preparation
3.7       Chemical analysis
3.7.1    Proximate analysis
3.7.1.1 Moisture
3.7.1.2 Protein
3.7.1.3 Fat
3.7.1.4 Ash
3.7.1.5 Crude fiber
3.7.1.6 carbohydrate
3.7.2    Mineral determination
3.7.3    Vitamins (antioxidants) determination
3.7.3.1 Beta carotene (retinol)
3.7.3.2 Vitamin C
3.7.4    Phytochemical screening
3.7.4.1 Flavonoids
3.7.4.2 Saponins
3.7.4.3 Tannins
3.7.5    Anti nutrients
3.7.5.1 Oxalate determination
3.7.5.2 Phytate determination
3.7.5.3 Haemaglutinin
3.8       Sensory evaluation
3.9       Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS
4.1.1    Protein
4.1.2    Fat
4.1.3    Ash
4.1.4    Fiber
4.1.5    Carbohydrate
4.2.1    Iron
4.2.2    Zinc
4.2.3    Iodine
4.2.4    Calcium
4.2.5    Phosphorus
4.2.6    Bet carotene
4.2.7    Vitamin
4.3.1    Tannins
4.3.2    Saponins
4.3.3    Flavonoids
4.3.4    Polyphenols
4.4.1    Phytate
4.4.2    Oxalate
4.4.3    Haemagglutinin
4.5.1    Protein
4.5.2    Fat
4.5.3    Ash
4.5.4    Fibre
4.5.5    Carbohydrate
4.6.1    Iron
4.6.2    Zinc
4.6.3    Calcium
4.6.4    Iodine
4.6.5    Phosphorus
4.6.6    β- carotene
4.6.7    Vitamin C
4.7.1    Tannins
4.7.2    Saponins
4.7.3    Polyphenols and flavonoids
4.8.1    Phytate, oxalate and haemagglutinin
4.9.1    Colour
4.9.2    Taste
4.9.3    Consistency
4.9.4    General acceptability

CHAPTER FIVE:  DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1.2    Cowpea leaves and husks samples
5.1.3    Cowpea leaves and husks soup
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                                                                 INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the study
The scarcity of documented information on the nutrient potentials of most of the foods consumed in Nigeria has greatly contributed towards the ineffectiveness of nutrition education programmes to meet the nutrient needs of a vast segment of the Nigerian population. This lack of documented nutrition information has precipitated wrong choices of foods, low nutrients intake and delay in embracing food diversification. The knowledge of the influence of processing on the chemical composition of foods is also necessary for optimizing nutrient reiteration during handling and processing of our local food materials (Ibok,Ellis & Owusu,2008).

Recently, researchers have become convinced that nutrients found in fruits and vegetables do more than just prevent diseases such as beriberi or rickets. The most publicized finding reveals that certain vitamins or vitamin precursors, notably vitamin C; beta-carotene as well as polyphenols are powerful antioxidants (Consumer Report on Health, 1998). Antioxidants prevent molecular damage caused by oxidation in that, the protection offered may fend off many diseases and muscular degeneration (Islam et al., 2002).
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), an annual herbaceous legume originated in Africa and is wildly grown. Drought tolerance; short growing period and its multi-purpose use make cowpea a very attractive crop to farmers who cultivate in marginal, drought-prone areas with low rainfall and less developed irrigation systems where infrastructure, food security and diminishing malnutrition are major challenges (Hallensleben, Polrech, Heller &, Maass, 2009). Lawrence and Whitbread (2006) described cowpea as one of the most important tropical dual-purpose legumes, being used as leafy vegetable, grain, as fresh cut-and-carry foliage, and for hay and silage. 
Cowpea has much variability within the species. The specie under study is local specie with coiled

pods (Adengee in Tiv,). The fresh seeds are greenish but golden brown when dried and relatively

small in size compared with the common black eyed beans. This crop can be used at all stages of

growth as a vegetable crop. The tender green leaves are an important food source in Tiv communities

in Benue State. The green leaves serve as an ingredient in egusi (melon) soup just like spinach is used

in egusi soup; or the leaves are blanched and sun dried for with egusi soups all year round. The

immature pods are boiled, the boiled seeds are eaten as vegetable and the husks are sun dried, prepared as egusi soup.

1.2         Statement of the problem

Cowpea leaves and husks have not received the needed research-based attention in Nigeria. Despite the abundance of this vegetable crop in the Nigerian communities, particularly in Tiv land, information on their processing for preservation, uses in preparation of traditional soups and their nutrient composition is scanty in Nigeria literature. Although lately, some researches were carried out on African indigenous vegetables, especially leafy ones, cowpea research continued to focus on improvement of the grain and/or the entire herbage for animal feed (Singh, Ajeigbe, Tarawali, Fernandez-rivera & Musa, 2003). According to Hallensleben et al. (2009), cowpea is an important food legume and its use as a leafy vegetable is essential. Utilization of cowpea as a leafy vegetable and grain crop may provide nutritional and harvest versatility not available with purely vegetable crops such lettuce or monocarpic crops such as wheat (Bubenheim, Mitchell and Nielson,1990). The populace unaware of the high nutrient potentials of this vegetable grows cowpea, wait for the harvest of the matured dry seeds, and discard the leaves. However, it is the leaves of some legumes, including cowpea, that showed much promise for providing part of the vastly increased supplies of nutrients that the world population needs(Bubenheim, Mitchell and Nielson,1990). The need remains to further intensively research on these vegetable and their health benefits. It is, therefore, imperative to....

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