CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EFFECTS OF DRIED Irvingia gabonensis (OGBONO) SEEDS AND FRESH GARDEN EGG LEAVES ON SELECTED BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF DIABETIC ADULT MALE WISTAR RATS

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ABSTRACT

The study examined the chemical composition and the effects of Solanum aethiopicum leaves (garden egg) and Irvingia gabonensis seed (ogbono) on selected biochemical indices of alloxan induced adult wistar rats. Fresh Solanum aethiopicum leaves were plucked, sorted, washed with clean water and allowed to drain. The pulverized leaves were packaged in a plastic container and preserved in the refrigerator. Dried Irvingia gabonensis seeds were sorted washed and shade dried. The ground seeds were packaged in a plastic container and kept in the refrigerator. Proximate analysis was carried using standard methods. This analysis showed that Solanum aethiopicum leaves contained moisture (77.23%), fibre (2.61%), carbohydrate (10.88%) and protein (8.14%) while Irvingia gabonensis seeds had moisture (6.0%), fibre (2.27%), carbohydrate (56.07%), protein (10.52%) and fats (24.18%) content. Pro- vitamin A (2030 i.u), C (14.36mg/100g) and E (8.10mg/100g) were present in Solanum aethiopicum leaves. Vit.E (4.08mg) was found in Irvingia gabonensis seeds. Mineral level revealed Iron (2.04 mg/100g), magnesium (160.48 mg/100g), calcium (239.58mg/100g), potassium (40.25mg/100g) sodium (24.07mg/100g) in Solanum aethiopicum leaves. Mineral composition in the seed revealed Iron (5.27 mg/100g), magnesium (19.10 mg/100g), zinc (1.68 mg/100g), calcium (372.46 mg/100g), potassium (40.49 mg/100g), sodium (25.73 mg/100g) and copper (2.32 mg/100g). Phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemical and antinutrient analysis showed presence of tannin (20.93 mg/100g) in Solanum aethiopicum leaves while Irvingia gabonensis seeds contained tannin (2.32 mg/100g), alkaloids (5.15 mg/100g). There were seven groups of rats in this study. Six groups of rats were fed rat chow supplemented with Solanum aethiopicum leaves and Irvingia gabonensis seed. The experimental groups were diabetically induced with alloxan powder of 150mg/kg mixed with 10mls of diluted water. Group 1 was rats fed rat chow and water ad libitum only as control. Groups 2-4 were rats fed 5, 10 and 15g/kgBW of Solanum aethiopicum leaves and Groups 5-7 were rats fed 5, 10 and 15g/kgBW of Irvingia gabonensis seeds. Biochemical analyses (lipid profile and heamatological indices) were determined using standard methods. Serum cholesterol levels decreased in all the groups of rats fed the two test diets. The final result of serum cholesterol in the rats fed Solanum aethiopicum showed significant difference (p<0 .05="" also="" cholesterol="" difference="" i="" in="" of="" significant="" there="" values="" was="">Irvingia
gabonensis. The group fed 10g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum decreased (18.52mmol/l) LDL of the rats. There were decreases of LDL in all the groups of rats fed 5g, 10g and 15g/kgBW of Irvingia gabonensis (21.74, 1.60 and 23.53mmol/l). The LDL tables differed significantly (p<0 .05="" fed="" groups="" i="" the="">Solanum aethiopicum had increased HDL. The group fed diets containing 15g/kgBW Irvingia gabonensis reduced the (7.69mol/l) HDL of rats compared to the other groups. The HDL tables differed significantly. Triglycerides increased in all the groups of rats fed Solanum aethiopicum. There was 19.10mmol/l reduction of triglycerides in the group of rats fed 15g/kgBW Irvingia gabonensis seeds. The rats fed 5g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum leaves decreased the (4.65) PCV value of the rats compared to other groups fed this diet. The groups fed Irvingia gabonensis seeds had increases of PCV in all the groups of rats. The PCV and triglycerides showed no significant difference (P>0.05) . The groups fed 5g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum leaves of each test diets decreased the RBC of the rats. The group fed diets containing 5g/kgBW Solanum aethiopicum reduced (12.71 x106/L) WBC of rats compared to the other groups. There were increases of WBC of all the groups of rats fed Irvingia gabonensis seed. There were increases of leucocytes of all the groups of rats fed these two diets. The result revealed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) within the groups. The groups fed 5 and 15g/kgBW of the two test diets decreased the body weight of the rats. All the groups decreased in the blood sugar levels.
TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Table of Contents
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the study
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Objective of the study
1.4       Significance of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Definition of Vegetables
2.1.1    Classification of Vegetables
2.1.2    Factors that Affect Consumption of Vegetables
2.1.3 Solanum aethiopicum
2.1.3.1 Uses of Solanum aethiopicum
2.1.3.2 Nutritional Composition of Solanum aethiopicum
2.2       Definition of Nuts
2.2.1    Uses of Nuts
2.2.2    Classification of Nuts
2.2.3    Factors that affect the Nuts Consumption
2.2.4    Irvingia gabonensis
2.2.4.1 Uses of Irvingia gabonensis
2.2.4.2 Nutritional Composition of Irvingia gabonensis
2.3       Phytochemicals
2.3.1    Phytochemical of Irvingia gabonensis
2.3.2    Phytochemicals of Solanum aethiopicum
2.4       Anti-nutrients
2.4.1    Anti-nutrient of Irvingia gabonensis
2.4.2    Anti nutrient of Solanum aethiopicum
2.5       Concepts of Diabetes Mellitus
2.5.1    Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
2.5.2    Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
2.5.3    Clinical Manifestation of Diabetes
2.5.4    Prevalence of Diabetes
2.5.5    Diagnosis of Diabetes
2.6       Concept of Anemia
2.6.1    Classification of Anemia
2.6.2    Prevalence of Anemia
2.63     Diagnosis of Anemia
2.7       Lipid Profile
2.7.1    Types of Lipid Profile
2.8       Review of Studies done with this Plants
2.8.1 Solanum aethiopicum leaf
2.8.2    Irvingia gabonensis Seed

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Collection and Identification of Samples
3.2       Processing of the Samples
3.3       Proximate analysis
3.3.1    Moisture Content Determination
3.3.2    Ash Determination
3.3.3    Crude Fat Estimation
3.3.4    Determination of Protein Content
3.3.5    Determination of Crude fibre content
3.3.6    Determination of Total Carbohydrate
3.4       Vitamin Determination
3.4.1    Pro-vitamin A
3.4.2    Vitamin C
3.4.3    Vitamin E
3.5       Determination of Phytochemicals
3.5.1    Determination of Alkaloids
3.5.2    Determination of Saponins
3.5.3    Determination of Tannins
3.6       Anti-Nutrient Analysis
3.6.1    Determination of Phytate
3.6.2    Determination of Oxalate
3.7       Preparation of Samples
3.7.1 Solanum aethiopicum leaves
3.7.2    Irvingia gabonenesis seeds
3.7.3    Determination of Concentration
3.8       Study design
3.9       Rat study
3.9.1    Procurement of Rats
3.9.2    Housing
3.9.3 Induction of Diabetes
3.9.4 Feeding of Animals
3.10 Lipid Profile
3.10.1  Determination of Cholesterol
3.10.2  Determination of HDL (High Density Lipoprotein)
3.10.3  Determination of LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein)
3.10.4  Determination of Triglycerides
3.11 Determination of Heamatological indices
3.12 Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
REFERENCES

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study
Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition, apart from the fact that we derive most of our recommended daily needs of mineral and vitamins from them. They are consumed in relatively small quantities as a side dish or a relish with staples. Vegetables can be leaves, root, stems and seeds (Gropper, Smith & Groff, 2005). They maintain alkaline reserve in the body. They have high vitamin, dietary fibre and mineral contents (Ball, 2006). The dark green leaves provide a high amount of carotene, ascorbic acid and micro minerals which play important roles in nutrient metabolism and delay the development of degenerative diseases (Yi-Fang, Jie, Xian-Hong & Rui-Hui, 2006). The wide variation in colour, shape, tastes and textures of various vegetables add an interesting touch to meals (Fasuyi, 2006). There is increasing epidemiological evidence in favour of an association between nutrition and susceptibility to infection. Health disorders such as heamorrhoids, gallstones, heart diseases, obesity and constipation could be corrected, or treated by copious consumption of vegetables (Whitney, 2002). Eating plenty of vegetables and fruits can help ward off heart disease and stroke, control blood pressure, prevent some types of cancer, avoids a painful intestinal ailment called diverticulitis, and guard against cataract and macular degeneration(two common causes of vision loss) (Joshipura, Hu & Manson, 2001).

Solanum aethiopicum, Ethiopian Eggplant or nakati is a fruiting plant of the genus Solanum mainly found in Asia and Tropical Africa. It is also known as Mock Tomato, Garden Eggs and Ethiopian Nightshade and locally called aghara in igbo language (Lester & Seck, 2004). The leaves of Solanum aethiopicum are eaten as a leaf vegetable and are actually more nutritious than the fruit. Fruits of this variety are about two inches in diameter and turn bright orange-red when ripe, although they are usually eaten when still green (encyclopeadia, 2013).
Nuts are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits and reduction of high body weight (Albert, Gaziano, Willett & Manson, 2002). This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance and body weight raise questions about its recommendations (Hu et al., 1998). This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance. Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and Body Mass Index (BMI). Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65–75% of the energy they provide (Traoret, 2008).
Irvingia gabonensis is a species of African trees in the genus Irvingia, sometimes known by the common names as wild mango, African mango, bush mango, dika or ogbono. They bear edible mango-like fruits, and are especially valued for their fat and protein rich nuts (Ngondi, Oben, Minka & Samuel, 2006). The geographical distribution of the species extends from the Casamance region (Senegal) to Angola and it is found in moist semi-deciduous forests. It does not exist in swampy areas. It is found in most parts of Cameroon. The fruits are greenish yellow with fleshy fibrous pulp surrounding a large hard stone (Lamorde, 2010).

Unhealthy diet coupled with sedentary life style is known to be risk factors for life threatening chronic diseases and death: obesity, diabetes, hypertension, anaemia and some forms of cancers (Michel, Franco, Jeremy, Yong & Veronica, 2010). Broadly, it is agreed that diets that increase the risk of chronic diseases are relatively high in fats, saturated fats, sugar, salt, alcohol, refined grains and foods of animal origin, whereas diets that protect against chronic diseases are relatively high in minimally processed grains, legumes, fibre, vegetables, fruits and foods of plant origin (Popkin & Du, 2003). There is urgent need to develop methods to increase the availability of these important components of human diet available all year round.
Our ancestors whose diets consisted mainly of herbs, fruits, vegetables, nuts and starchy tubers (unlike many of the processed or refined foods we eat today) lived longer. They were not victims of many health problems man faces in present times (Dunn, 2012).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a public health problem. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030 (Nyenwe, Odia, Ihekaba, Ojule & Babatunde, 2003). Oputa and Chinyere (2012) noted that, Nigeria has a population of about 150 million, of which 76 million are adults. This shows that diabetes mellitus is of public health importance in Nigeria....

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