AUDIENCE PERCEPTION OF MEDIA CAMPAIGNS ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Millions of our fellow human beings continue to live as contemporary slaves, victims of abominable practices like human trafficking, forced labour and sexual exploitation. Human trafficking causes grievous harm to the victims whose human rights are violated through physical, emotional and sexual exploitation. Individual victims and their families are often subjected to violence and even death. In addition, the society is gravely affected as it exacerbates the concerns for human security. This study seeks to find out the audience perception of media campaigns on human trafficking precisely in the South-south region of Nigeria. In executing this study, the researcher used the survey design research method. Australian National Statistical Service (NSS) Online Calculator was used to draw a manageable sample size (428) from the population of this study which comprised residents in the South-south. Findings revealed that 55.4 per cent are exposed to campaigns while 81 per cent are aware to some extent on the campaigns on human trafficking with the television (60.3%) and radio (36.8%) as major sources of exposure. The research also revealed that the audience perceives these campaigns as beneficial (77.0%), educative/informative (60.8%), encouraging (44.3%) but not regular (40%). Intensifying campaigns using the internet, billboards (movable and non movable), posters, brochure, booklets and leaflets alongside with the television and radio programmes and creation of employment will go a long way in reducing the ill of human trafficking in our society.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Objectives of Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of Study
1.7       Operational definition of terms
            References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Focus of Review
2.1       The concept of Human trafficking
2.2       Human Trafficking in Africa
2.3       Causes and Control of Human Trafficking in Nigeria
2.4       Mass media and human trafficking awareness campaigns
2.5       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of Study
3.3       Sampling Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Measuring Instrument
3.6       Validity and Reliability of Instrument
3.7       Method of Data Collection and Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation& Analysis
4.2       Discussion of Findings
            References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography
APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background of Study
The contemporary movement of people from one place to another has two opposing aspects. One is prohibitive, addressing human trafficking; the other allows for the principle of free movement (Truong, 2006, p.59). Human trafficking by definition denotes that people are forced, tricked or threatened into situations in which they are exploited either sexually, financially or through forced labour. Trafficking in human beings involves by definition, an element of exploitation. The most widely used definition of trafficking is stated in the United Nations Palermo Protocol- (UNPP 2000: 2)

Trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.


Human trafficking is a global phenomenon involving millions of victims of at least 136 different nationalities from around 118 countries worldwide, according to United Nations office on Drugs and Crime, (UNODC, 2012 p.5). Officially coined as modern slavery, this trade has become transnational and affects every continent on the globe. Global connectivity has produced diversified patterns of transnational mobility through networks that operate at different degrees of organization and complexity. (Truong & Angeles, 2005 p.9).
The International Labour Organization estimates that there are at least 2.4 million trafficked persons at any given point in time. Yet, there are only a few thousand convictions of traffickers every year. Most of the victims are not identified and consequently never receive justice for the damage inflicted upon them. Despite growing awareness and more effective law enforcement responses trafficking remains a low-risk criminal enterprise with high returns. The ILO estimates that annual profits generated from trafficking in human beings are as high as 32 billion USD (ILO, 2008 p.1)

Nigeria has gained a reputation for being one of the leading African countries in human trafficking with cross-border and internal trafficking. Trafficking of persons however, is the third largest crime after economic fraud and the drug trade. The violation of human rights as a result of political, social and economic crisis by several military regimes in Nigeria has hindered the development of community participation in decision making processes especially to women and children in the country. In addition, the oil boom in the 1970s created opportunities for migration both inside and outside the country. This created avenues for exploitation, for international trafficking in women and children, for forced labour and for prostitution. Nigeria is seen as a country of origin, transit and destination for human trafficking. There is also evidence of internal trafficking which is within the country. Destinations for trafficked Nigerians include the following West African countries; Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, Benin, Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon, Gabon and Guinea. To European countries, they include; Italy, Belgium, Spain, the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom. To North Africa, they include, Libya, Algeria and Morocco and to Middle Eastern countries, Saudi Arabia, United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, (UNESCO 2006 p, 11-12)


Addressing human trafficking has become a political priority for many governments in the world. Available information about the magnitude of the problem is limited. 
Laczkoand Gramegna (2003 p, 179-194) note the growing consensus on the existing difficulty in measuring and monitoring trafficking given the wide range of actions and outcomes covered by the term, Article 3 of the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons (including recruitment, transportation, harbouring, transfer and receipt).

As part of efforts to put an end to human trafficking otherwise called modern slavery, the Women Consortium (WOCON) pioneered the Launch of the campaign against trafficking of women on March 8 1997 in Lagos and has since engaged in sensitization, awareness and advocacy campaigns at the International, Regional and Sub-Regional and National levels. (Women’s Consortium of Nigeria, [WOCON], 1997. para. 2).

The Committee for the Support of the Dignity of Women (COSUDOW) in 2003 under the United National Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, (UNICRI) organized a campaign at different levels through the use of radio jingles, face caps, T-shirts, stickers, posters, leaflets and handbills, and through meetings organized by various clubs, vocational centres, trade unions and social associations. In addition, traditional rulers, chiefs, opinion leaders and priests were visited in order to have their support. The campaign's messages were in the Edo language and Pidgin English since the campaigns were done purposely in Edo State. (United National Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute [UNICRI], 2003 para 2)


Also, the National Agency for the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons (NAPTIP) on 10th October 2010 launched “I am Priceless Campaign”. This campaign was in collaboration with the European Union Delegation, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Nigerian Immigration Service (NIS). The duration of this campaign is three years and its objective is to create awareness on the reality, dangers and possible impact of irregular.....

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