AUDIENCE ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF BROADCAST CAMPAIGN AGAINST ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN EBONYI STATE

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ABSTRACT

This research work was carried on “Audience Assessment of the Influence of Broadcast Campaigns against Environmental Pollution in Ebonyi State” to know the influence of environmental campaigns among the residents of Ebonyi State. In conducting the research, explanatory mixed design was adopted in eliciting quantitative and qualitative data through survey and in-depth interview methods. Questionnaire was used in generating quantitative data while interview guide guided the in-depth interview through which qualitative data was elicited. The population of the study was 2,176,947 from which the sample size of 385 was made through Australian calculator. After the analysis of data with the returned 380 copies of questionnaire, it was found that the people of Ebonyi State are highly exposed to broadcast campaigns against environmental pollution. The people are aware of the implications of pollution and more campaigns are needed. It was also found that the people are knowledgeable about the campaign and many people have been influenced by the campaign to behave in environmental friendly manners. Finally, the level of acceptance of the campaign has made the people to spend much time in consuming the campaign. Based on the result of this study, the researcher recommended network of environmental campaign across the country, consistency of campaigns, the use of indigenous language and introduction of environmental education at secondary school level, as the way forward to combating environmental pollution.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Operational Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Focus of the Review
2.1       Environmental Pollution
2.2       Types of Pollution
2.3       Effects of Pollution
2.4       Broadcast Campaigns against Environmental Pollution
2.5       Empirical Review
2.6       Theoretical Framework
            References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.3       Research Population
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Sampling Techniques for Interview
3.6       Instruments for Data Collection
3.7       Method of Instruments Administration
3.8       Validity and Reliability of the Instrument
3.9       Method of Data Analysis
            References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.0       Introduction
4.1       Quantitative Analysis
4.1.1 Response Rate
4.1.2 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
4.1.3 Analysis of Psychographic Data
4.2       Qualitative Analysis
4.3       Discussion of Findings
            References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary of Findings
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
            Bibliography
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Environmental pollution is one of the major challenges facing countries of the world, especially the third world countries. The issue of environmental maintenance has become a prominent, complex and multidimensional case on the public policy agenda of different nations and international organizations. Environmental conservation, protection, sanitation and management now occupy the centre- stage in the corporate growth and survival policies of most business and non-business organizations (Anatsui and Adekanye, 2015, p.2). This global trend or focus on environment can be traced to United Nations Conference on the Environment (UNCE) held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1972. It drew the attention to many unfortunate consequences that arise from human and corporate neglect or abuse of the environment and warned that the environment should no longer be taken for granted and too that deliberate concrete actions should be taken by individuals and corporate organizations to conserve, protect, renew and maintain a healthy environment for continued human survival, growth and development (Anatsui and Adekanye, 2015, p. 2).


In Nigeria, environmental issues did not gain official prominence until 1988 Koko Toxic Waste Dumping Saga which also brought to the fore the exigent need to establish the Nigeria Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), Federal Ministry of Environment and other relevant agencies ostensibly to tackle environmentally related issues (Ityavyar and Thomas 2015, p. 2). This is because, these days, the issue of environmental pollution is no longer perceived as a mere ecological problem of relating a man with his environment. It has been extended to all ramifications of life, ranging from sociological, political, psychological, development, economic, cultural and scientific aspects of human endeavor (Ogbuene, 2010, p. 3). Environmental problem can manifest in different forms, and its effect threatens the progress of man in the society. Every state in Nigeria suffers one form of environmental challenge or the other. It may be erosion, flooding, poor management of solid waste, agro-chemical, oil pollution, carbon emission, gas flaring, water pollution, mining waste land. Other forms of pollution may be air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, ozone layer depletion, toxic waste and so on (Adegoroye, 1997, p . 12 - 14) cited in (Anatsui and Adekanye, 2015, p. 4)

The effort to tackle environmental pollution increased in 1992 after noticing the dangers associated with it, such as lack of joy, social disorder, confusion, disease outbreak, epidemics, sudden death, unhealthy living, short life span, poor economy, drought, famine, bleak future, and so on (Anatsui and Adekanye 2015, p. 5). In the words of Aghamelu, Nnabo and Eze (2010, p. 2), there are many natural causes of environmental pollution but human activities contribute in no small amount of it. Such human activities include poor management of sewage, extraction of natural resources in an unprofessional manner, over-exploitation of natural resources, over grazing, deforestation, poor irrigation system, lack of drainage facilities, poor development plan, bush burning among others.

There is a great need to create awareness among the members of the society on the need to protect the environment. According to Hannah (2002, p. 7), the most important landmark for environmental pollution education at an international level was the International Conference on Environmental Education (ICEE) for the masses on how to achieve environmental safety in the society organized by UNESCO and UNEP at Tbilisi in former USSR in 1977. Environmental education deals with producing citizenry that is knowledgeable concerning the biophysical and its associated problems.

Hannah (2012) also maintains that “the goals of environmental education were defined as creating environmental awareness and impart general knowledge for basic understanding of environment, acquiring environmental friendly attitude and values and to generate new pattern of behavior towards environment’’. Several development activities in many countries especially the developing nations leave a number of people poor and vulnerable, but at the same time degrade their environment. Generally, the environment and the natural resources have played a major role in economic transformation of every nation. Environmental challenges are the major contention in characterizing Africa as a continent with crises. (Opara, 2008, and Opara and Gerhard 2008).

The environment has been at receiving end with many consequences of the excesses of man in his struggle for survival. It is the complex weave of physical, chemical and biotic factors that interact with each other and bring out impact on all living things and their surroundings. It is a life supporting system for human existence and survival and as well provides requirement for socio economic progress (UNDP 2001). Environment is the basic source of economy that must be protected and well managed. All the efforts directed at managing the environment is to ensure biological diversity on earth, which humans are the prime species in the society. Wrongful manipulation of environment introduces hazards that make the environment unsafe and impede the productivity rate of the workers (Effect of Work Environment, para. 3). (Eze, 2010, p. 6) maintains that the biodegradable items increase biological oxygen demand thereby producing foul smelling gases such as methane CH4, ammonia NH3 and hydrogen sulphide H2S. The water surface and entire surrounding of such area is degraded.

Nigeria is a country with a productive and diverse ecosystem, such as mangrove,

rainforest, swamp, savannah and wetland. Ebonyi State is an important agricultural, industrial and commercial area which needs much environmental attention. The major occupations of Ebonyi People are farming, fishing, quarrying, trading, mining, palm producing and so on. Most of those things are practiced in an unprofessional manner, thus....

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