LANGUAGE CONTACT AND INFLUENCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR IGALA/BASSA-NGE CONTACT IN DEKINA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KOGI STATE

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ABSTRACT

This study investigates language contact and influence, its implications for Igala and Bassa- Nge contact in Dekina Local Government Area, Kogi State. The study specifically deals with the linguistic, socio-cultural and economic factors that influence that language contact between Igala and Bassa-Nge speech communities. The study uses 200 respondents comprising 100 individuals each from the two speech communities. This study reviews related literature both theoretical and empirical studies on language contact with its attendant positive and negative consequences. The instruments used for data collection are observation and structured questionnaires that contain a four point likert scale type on the phenomenon of language contact. Suggestions and recommendations are made on the possibilities for positive influence on language contact between speech communities if all conditions for favourable contact are taken care of.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE: Introduction
1:1   Background of the study
1:2   Statement of the problem
1:3   Significance of the study
1.4       Research questions
1:5   Purpose of the study
1:6       Scope and delimitation

CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review
2:1       Theoretical studies
2:2       Empirical studies
2:3       Summary

CHAPTER THREE: Methodology
3:0       Introduction
3:1       Research design
3:2   Area of the study
3:3   Population of the study
3:4   Sample and sampling techniques
3:5       Instrumentation
3:6       Mode of study

CHAPTER FOUR: Data analysis and discussion
4:1       Data analysis
4:2       Discussions
4:3       Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1       Summary and Conclusion
5.2       Recommendations
            References
            Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the study
Language contact is a major concept in sociolinguistics through which the study of language, people using the language and the society in general is made possible. According to Agbedo (2007:31), the concept of language contact or languages in contact situation refers to practical sociolinguistic situation whereby people from different enthnolinguistic backgrounds converge at a particular place for whatever reason or reasons to interact, thus providing a veritable ground for contact between languages used by these people. This means that language has since become an essential element not only in human existence but also in establishing functional human relationship because there is simply no way people can exist or do anything without a form of language.
In explaining the results of languages in contact situation, Winford (2003:11) says that the results of languages in contact differ according to several factors, including the length and intensity of contact between the groups; the types of social, economic, religious and political relationship between them, as well as the functions communication between them must serve and above all, the degree of similarity or otherwise between the languages in contact situation. Situations of language contact therefore can assume different dimension with particular reference to historical situation, stable borders between language families, colonial expansion(for political and economic reasons), and migratory movement (Appel & Muysken (1987:5), geographical proximity between different language communities with slow spread of features across languages, thereby creating linguistic areas or sprachbund. A good example is the Balican sprachbund, where speakers of typologically distinct languages like Greek, Albania, Romanian and Bulgarian to mention but a few, have adopted from one another centuries past as a result of these languages in contact situation Winford (2003).

In addition, most languages have been influenced at one time or another by contact, resulting in varying degrees of transfer of features from one language to another. For instance, English has borrowed a great deal of vocabulary from French, Latin, Greek and many other languages in the course of history. Accordingly, transfer of this nature does not actually require speakers of different languages to have actual contact since it can be achieved or accomplished through book learning by teachers who then pass on the new vocabulary to other speakers via literature, religious texts, dictionaries among others. But it can also be understood that many other contact situations has led to language transfer of various types, to the extent that new contact languages can emerge or be created and developed. However, language contact often plays a very important role in the history of languages. The history of a language involves gradual evolution as well as sudden changes that are consequent upon the types of language contact and the conditions under which those languages have come in contact. Therefore, language and the people using the language as well as their culture are sometime inseparable. This is affirmed in Agbedo (2009:30) when he says that ‘language......


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