FINANCIAL REPORTING AND BANK PERFORMANCE: AN ASSESSMENT OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine banks, on investments and performance appraisal. It was also to ascertain the problems of using financial reports to access performance of banks and finally to determine if there’s a relationship between financial reporting and performance evaluation of a bank.

The inductive research method was adopted and the statistical analysts, particularly the chi-square and t-distribution test were used in the analysis of the data collected from the bank.

Although investors and performance evaluation analyst relied on financial statement in their decisions and appraisal, the reliability of financial report especially during inflation cannot be assured owing to the historical cost convention used as a basis for asset valuation by banks. This is because; the profits of an accounting year would not usually show a true figure owing to the courage effect of inflation. Therefore, managerial decision of banks based entirely on financial reports will lend to poor and inadequate decisions.


The recommendations and suggestion made were based wholly on the outcome of the study, for example, on the problem of inflation, it was recommended that the bank should adopt the current cost accounting basis for its financial reporting ensure credibility and reliability of information, by the various users, given the inflationary relatives.

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC
2.2       THE NEED FOR FINANCIAL REPORTS
2.3       THE COMPOSITION OF THE FINANCIAL REPORTS
2.3.1    THE CHIAIRMAN’S REPORTS
2.3.2    THE DIRECTOR’S REPORT
2.3.3    THE AUDITOR’S REPORT
2.3.4    THE FINANCIAL STATEMENT
2.4       VARIOUS USERS OF FINANCIAL REPORTS AND THEIR INFORMATION NEEDS
2.4.1    SHAREHOLDERS
2.4.2    LONG-TERM CREDITORS
2.4.3    SHORT-TERM CREDITORS
2.4.4    TAX AUTHORITIES AND GOVERNMENT
2.4.5    EMPLOYEES AND TRADE UNIONS
2.4.6    MANAGEMENT
2.4.7    ANANLYST\ADVISERS
2.5       FINANCIAL REPORTING BY BANKS
2.5.1    INTRODUCTION
2.5.2    THE PRUDENTIAL GUIDELINES
2.6       PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN THE BANKING INDUSTRY
2.6.1    EFFICIENCY AND PROFITABLITY
2.6.2    POTENTIAL AND ACTUAL GROWTH
2.6.3    LOANS AND ADVANCES

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2       SOURCES OF DATA
3.2.1    PRIMARY SOURCES
3.2.2    SECONDARY SOURCES
3.3       POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4       METHOD OF DATA PRESENTATION
3.5       METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2       DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
4.3       TEST OF HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER FIVE
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       FINDINGS
5.2       CONCLUSION
5.3       RECOMMENDATIONS
5.4       BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX


CHAPTER ONE : BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.1       INTRODUCTION

A farmer, who plants crops, expects result, similarly to student who sits for an examination expects results. The same is also true of an investor.

For the farmer, the result might be communicated to him in the form of a bumper harvest. The result sheet or a report card would usually suffice for a student. However, in the case of an investor, the result is communicated through the financial reports.

Financial reports are law to be prepared by every limited liability company; these limited liability companies abound in virtually all sector of the economy.

Every company shall cause accounting records to be kept. The accounting records shall be sufficient to show and explain the transactions of the company and shall be such as to disclose with reasonable accuracy, at anytime the financial position of the company.

In the banking industry, financial reports are of great interest to the general public because the banks directly or indirectly interact with people.


This public interest has caused companies (including banks) to accept social as well as economic, financial and legal responsibilities and has created a consequence, a growing need for the communication of information to account for the results which are of considerable interest a wide range of individuals and organizations.

So, it becomes very important for reliable information to be circulated to interested parties which can enable them to acquire an essential knowledge of the ways is which companies particularly the bank are performing in relation to the public interest. This fact is further educated by the recommendation of the working party set up in Britain by the Accounting standard committee in October 1974 under the chairmanship of Derek boothman which took a study of the scope and aims of publishing financial statements.

The committee recommended that....

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