EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIALS OF LARGE SCALE PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION IN NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


The potentials of large scale solar photovoltaic power generation in Sokoto State, North -Western Nigeria and Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria were evaluated through the application of solar PV Sys computer software. Daily average solar radiation in both locations and average relative humidity from 2001 to 2010 was obtained from Nigerian Metrological Weather Forecast Centre, Abuja. The data together with recorded Minimum/Maximum Temperatures were applied as simulation input parameters to activate the computer program. Results obtained were used to estimate the total energy production capacity of a 200kW and 500kW photovoltaic power plant in Sokoto, as compared to the same capacity of power plant located in Port Harcourt. It was observe that, the total energy production capacity of a 200kW PV power plant in Sokoto state is 532MWhr/yr, while the same power plant in Port Harcourt could only produce 223MWhr/yr. The economic analysis also indicate that the cost of 200kW PV power plant in Rivers state is higher than the same power plant located in Sokoto state, North Western Nigeria. Furthermore, economic analysis of large scale solar photovoltaic power generation was made and a model of 4 x 250kW mini grid systems was developed.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.1.1    Research Problem
1.1.2    Scope and Delimitation
1.1.3    Independent Power Projects (IPP)
1.1.4    National Integrated Power Projects (NIPP)
1.2       Literature Review
1.2.1    Classification of Solar PV Power Plants
1.2.2    Stand Alone Solar PV System
1.2.3    Hybrid System
1.2.4    Grid Connected
1.2.5    Characteristics of Grid Connected Solar PV System
1.2.6    PV Sys V5.0 Computer Software
1.2.7    Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Materials
2.2       Methods
2.2.1    Modeling of the nth Year Cumulative Energy Produced in Sokoto
2.2.2    Modeling 1.0MW PV Power System
2.2.3    Modeling Details
2.2.4    Project Design
2.2.5    Simulation Variant
2.2.6    Selection of Grid Inverters
2.2.7    Economic Analysis of Solar PV Energy Cost Per Unit of Installation in Sokoto State
2.2.8    Economic Analysis of Solar PV Energy Cost Per Unit of Installation in Port Harcourt, Rivers State

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1       Results
3.1.1    200kW PV power losses in a year
3.1.2    500kW PV power losses in a year
3.2       Discussion
3.2.1    Solar PV Equipment Costing
3.2.2    Simulation Result in Case of Three Phase Fault Connection
3.2.3    Solar PV Arrangement and Overall System Rating
3.2.4    Configuration Details
3.2.5    Inverter Specifications Details
3.2.6    D.C Side Protections
3.2.7    Solar SCADA System

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1       Conclusions
4.2       Recommendations
REFERENCES

APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE


1.0        INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1        Introduction


Nigeria has an installed generation capacity of 8,644MW of electricity (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2003). But the increase in population as a result of urbanization has results in to severe shortage of electricity. According to an estimate, 70% of Nigerian population does not have access to electricity. The degree of development and civilization of a country is measured by the amount of utilization of energy by human beings. At present only 10% of rural households has access to electricity, (Sambo 2007).

Nigeria is endowed with vast oil and gas reserves and also an abundance of renewable energy potentials. Yet the country is suffering from an energy crisis, which has a major impact on its ability to reduce poverty and achieve the millennium development goals. Solar energy is the most promising of the renewable energy sources in view of its apparent unlimited potentials. (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2003)


Nigeria is situated approximately between 4 N and 13 E and with land mass of 9.24 x 105km2 enjoys an average daily sunshine of 6.25hrs, ranging between about 3.5hrs at the coastal areas and 9.0hrs at the Northern boundary. This is equivalent to an annual average daily solar radiation of about 5.25kw/m2/day varying between about 3.5kw/m2/day at the coastal area and 7.0kw/m2/day at the Northern boundary (Bugaje, 2011). Despite its relative abundance and....


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