EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS and ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF Mentha Spicata and Cymbopogon Citratus LEAVES

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ABSTRACT

Evaluation  of  chemical  composition  of  C. citratus  and  M.  spicata,  gave  the

following proximate composition on dry weight basis:      moisture; (1.67±0.29%)

and   (2.67±0.29%),         ash;   (7.52±0.30%)   and        (24.4±0.35%),    crude    lipid;

(6.67±0.28%) and (6.17±0.27%), crude fibre; (24.67±0.29%) and (2.67±0.29%),

crude    protein;(17.44±0.12%)    and    (25.32±0.13%),     available     carbohydrate

(42.03±0.32%)   and   (39.78±1.11%),   energy   value;   (297.91)        and   (315.93)

respectively. The samples contain mineral elements, (mg/100g); Na; 15.83±0.38

and 13.17±0.38, K; 610±20.00 and 646±11.55,  P; 0.32±0.01 and 0.33±0.01, Ca;

0.05±0.01 and 0.07±0.01, Mg; 6.41±0.01 and 6.94±0.02, Cu; 0.06±0.03 and

0.04±0.02, Fe; 0.08±0.01 and 0.37±0.03,     Mn; 0.03±0.01    and   0.11±0.02,    Zn;

0.15±0.02 and 0.32±0.01 respectively. Eight phytochemicals were qualitatively tested out of which six were confirm present, with concentration of alkaloid;(mg/100g) 3.20±0.60, and 7.60±0.20, tannins;(mg/100g) 4.73±0.08 and


8.52±0.40, phenolics;(mg/100g) 76.80±2.50 and 96.72±10.01, flavonoid;(mg/100g) 74.59±05.97 and 94.33±6,65 proanthocyanidin;(mg/100g) 12.83±01.77 and 10.51±0.90 for C.citratus and M. spicata respectively. Both the samples show antioxidant activities of 52% and 56% using Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging assay. The samples shows various components of essential oil. The phytochemical and mineral content of both plants justify their medicinal value. The result further indicated the potential of the two samples as sources of therapeutic agents.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of figures
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Literature Review
1.2.1    Botany of Mentha spicata
1.2.2    Uses of Mentha Spicata
1.2.3    Botany of Cymbopogon citratus
1.2.4    Uses and Applications of Cymbopogon Citratus
1.2.5    Alkaloid
1.2.6    Classification of Alkaloids
1.2.6.1 True Alkaloids
1.2.6.2 Protoalkaloids
1.2.6.3 Polyamine alkaloids
1.2.6.4 Peptide and cyclopeptide Alkaloids
1.2.6.5 Pseudalkaloids
1.2.7    Flavonoids
1.2.8    Saponins
1.2.8.1 Tannins
1.2.8.2 Hydrolysable Tannins
1.2.8.3 Condensed Tannins
1.2.9    Essential Oils
1.3       Justification
1.4       Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
MATERIAL AND METHODS
2.1.1    Sample Collection and Treatment
2.1.2    Extraction
2.1.3    Apparatus/Glassware used
2.1.4    Reagents Used
2.1.6    Preparation of Reagent
2.2.1    Proximate Analysis
2.2.2    Phytochemical Screening
2.2.3    Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis
2.2.4    Antioxidant activity
2.2.5    Mineral Analysis
2.2.6    Physico-Chemical Analysis
2.2.7    Extraction and chemical Analysis of Essential oils

CHAPTER THREE
3.0.      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1.      Results
3.2       Discussion
3.2.1    Proximate Analysis
3.2.2    Minerals Analysis
3.2.3    phytochemical composition
3.2.4    Antioxidant activity
3.2.5    Physico-chemical properties of the fix oil
3.2.6    Essential oil composition

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
4.1. Conclusion
4.2. Recommendations
References
Appendices


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW


1.1 INTRODUCTION



Knowledge of the chemical constituents of plants is desirable, not only for the discovery of therapeutic agents, but also because such information could be valuable in disclosing new sources of economic and important materials as tannins, oils, gums, and precursors for the synthesis of complex chemical substances. Furthermore, the knowledge of the chemical constituents of plants is valuable in discovering the actual value of folkloric remedies (Mojab et al., 2003). Plants have a limitless ability to synthesize substances mainly secondary metabolites, of which at least 12,000 are known, This figure is estimated to be less than10% of the total (Mallikharjuna et al., 2007). The natural substances are used by plants as defensive molecules against microorganisms, insects and herbivores. However, some of these product are involved in determination of plant odour (terpenoids), pigmentation (tannins and quinines), and flavour (Capsacin) (Mallikharjuna et al., 2007). However, these defensive molecules give plants their medicinal value which is exploited by human beings because of their great importance in health care of individuals and communities. These natural compounds formed the basis of modern drugs development today (Edeoga et al., 2005).

1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.2.1 Botany of Mentha Spicata

Spearmint (botanic name Mentha spicata) belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae) and is indigenous to most of the European regions as well as places in southwest Asia. The species derives its name from the resemblance of the tips of its leaves to pointed lances or spears. However, as spearmint has been extensively cultivated since ancient times. Spearmint is a herb-like rhizomatous (a flat, subversive steam that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes) plant that thrives best in damp soil conditions. This is a perennial herb that grows up to a height of 30 to 100 cm. The spearmint plant is extremely invasive in nature and was first noticed in the Great Lakes way back in 1843. (Ditomaso and Healy, 2007).The stems of the spearmint plant may or may not have hair-like bristles. The plant has dense undergrowth and an extensive fleshy rhizome beneath the ground. The deep...


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