DESIGN OF SUN TRACKER FOR A PV SYSTEM

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ABSTRACT


This project involves a design of sun tracker for PV system.
  

The circuit of the sun tracker is designed in such a way that it follows the track of the sun as it travel in the sky. The LDR are connected to non-inverter input of the operational amplifier whose reference voltage resistor R1 and R2 is 10Ω each. At the output of the operational amplifier are NPN and PNP transistor. These transistors are used to drive the DC motor in forward and backward directions which corresponds to the direction of the sun in the sky. The motor is switch through a relay.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Aims and Objectives
1.4 Solar Time
1.5 Significance
1.5 Scope of the Project

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2Solar Cell
2.3 Solar Panels
2.4 Types of Solar Panel
2.5 Sun Tracker
2.6 Types of Sun Tracker
2.7 Physics related theory
2.8 Operational Amplifier

CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM DESIGN
3.1 Introduction
3.2 General Block Design
3.3 Units design of Sun Tracker
3.4 The Sensor System
3.5 The Linear actuator System and the Motor Controller System
3.6 The Battery Storage System and the Controller
3.7 The Microcontroller system and the Developed flowchart

CHAPTER FOUR: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendation
REFERENCE


CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT


A solar tracker is a device for orienting a photovoltaic array solar photovoltaic panel or concentrating solar reflector or lens toward the sun. The sun's position in the sky varies both with the seasons (elevation) and time of day as the sun moves across the sky. Solar powered equipment works best when pointed at or near the sun, so a solar tracker can increase the effectiveness of such equipment over any fixed position, at the cost of additional system complexity. There are many types of solar trackers, of varying costs, sophisticationand performance. One well-known type of solar tracker is the heliostat, a movable mirror that reflects the moving sun to a

fixed location. (Pang 2010). But many other approaches are used as well non-concentrating applications require less accuracy, and many work without any tracking at all. However, tracking can substantially improve both the amount of total power produced by a system and that produced during critical system demand periods (typically late afternoon in hot climates). The use of trackers in non-concentrating applications is usually an engineering decision based on economics. Compared to photo voltaic, trackers can be inexpensive. This makes theme especially effective for photovoltaic systems using high-efficiency (and thus expensive) panels.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


While the output of solar cells depends on the intensity of sunlight and the angle of incidence, it means to get maximum efficiency; the solar panels must remain in front of sun during the whole day. But due to rotation of earth those panels can’t maintain their position always in front of sun. This problem results in decrease of their efficiency. Thus to get a constant output, an automated system is required which should be capable to constantly rotate the solar panel. The Solar Tracking.....


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This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


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