DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM

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ABSTRACT


Despite many buildings have fire fighting systems installed in them; many people are still losing their lives and properties due to fire accidents. In this research, an automatic cost effective device for the detection and control of fire has been designed and constructed. The system has an additional feature of sending signal to a pump/sprinkler through a relay. It is made up of two sensors, microcontroller, buzzer and a controlled fire fighting equipment (pump/sprinkler). LM 35 IC has been used as temperature sensor while MQ-2 gas sensor has been used as smoke sensor. All sensors are connected to the microcontroller through an input/output port. The controlling software for the whole system was designed in C programming language. The popular high performance, low power 8-bit microcontroller from the AVR family microcontrollers was used. The system was finally tested by introducing fire parameters (smoke and temperature) close to the detectors. When the parameters go above the set level in the detectors, audio alarm, LED indicator and pump/sprinkler were activated. The measured temperature of the system was compared with the reference temperature. The result showed that there was a mean deviation of 1.550C between the measured values and reference values which served as the control.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the research problems
1.3 Objectives of the research
1.4 Significance of the study
1.5 Scope and Limitations

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Development of fire fighting
2.2 Automatic fire control systems
2.3 Automatic control systems
2.4 Microcontrollers
2.4.1Types of microcontroller
2.4.2 Programming microcontroller
2.4.3 AVR Microcontroller
2.4.4    Specifications of the Atmel microcontroller
2.4.5    Programming AVR microcontroller
2.5       The power supply unit
2.6       Temperature sensors
2.6.1    LM 35 Temperature sensor
2.6.2    Specifications of LM 35 Temperature sensor
2.7       Smoke detectors
2.7.1    Photoelectric smoke detector
2.7.2    Ionization smoke detector
2.7.3    Pinnacle laser technology smoke detector
2.7.4    MQ-2 Smoke Detector
2.7.5    Specifications of the MQ-2 smoke detector
2.7.6    Working procedure of the MQ-2 smoke detector
2.8       DC Pump/Sprinkler
2.8.1    Specifications of the PAC Bosch DC pump
2.9       Display unit

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.1       System design
3.1.2    Power supply unit
3.1.3    Transformer
3.1.4    Rectifier
3.1.5    Filter circuit
3.1.6    Voltage regulator
3.1.7    The Sensors
3.1.8    Temperature sensor
3.1.9    Smoke sensor
3.1.10  Microcontroller (ATMEGA16)
3.1.11  Relay
3.1.12  Display
3.1.13  Buzzer
3.1.14  Pump/sprinkler
3.1.15  Assembling the hardware
3.1.16  Casing
3.2.1    System software design and implementation
3.2.2    Configuration of microcontroller
3.2.3    Programming of microcontroller
3.2.4    Communication protocols
3.2.5    USB Port
3.2.6    Flow chart for the system software
3.3 Principles of Operation

CHAPTER FOUR
TESTING, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1.1    System testing
4.1.2    Power supply test
4.1.3    Temperature sensor test
4.1.3    Smoke sensor test
4.2.1    Result of the construction
4.2.2    Power supply test results
4.2.3    Temperature sensor test results
4.2.4 Accuracy of temperature sensor
4.2.5 System performance test results
4.3.1 Discussion of results
4.3.2 Power supply
4.3.3 Temperature sensor response
4.3.4 Temperature sensor accuracy
4.2.5 System performance

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary
5.2 Conclusion
5.2.0 Recommendations
REFERENCES

APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE


INTRODUCTION


1.1         Background to the study

The need for early fire detection is paramount in protecting human life and property as fire disaster is a great threat to lives and properties. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and smoke. It is understood that every fire start with a smoke and heat. A key subject of interest to many researchers has thus been on fire fighting systems. More interest has been given on automation of these systems to allow fire fighting operation be less dependent on human support. Automated fire fighting system, which depends on temperature and smoke sensing devices, is used in many industrial and commercial applications. It is however true that in most cases sensible heat often occurs after great destruction has occurred and thus the use of smoke sensors need not be ignored at any point whatsoever. A number of fire detectors have been designed that can be installed within buildings. Among these types of sensors, the smoke sensor is widely used because of its early fire detection capability and its relatively low cost (Richard et al., 1998). However, although this sensor provides rapid response time, it has high false-alarm rates. In contrast, the temperature sensor provides more reliable responses but with slow response time. Fire detectors that use a single sensor may fail to activate when required or may cause false alarms. Therefore, a fire detecting system that uses a combination of smoke and temperature sensors will not only provide better smoke sensor compensation but also provide a more intelligent fire control system (Cheon et. al., 2009).


The need to safeguard lives and properties from fire disasters has led to the invention of an automatic fire control system using a smoke detector, a heat detector and an automatic sprinkler (Bukowski et. al., 1999). Automatic fire alarm system provides an immediate surveillance, monitoring and automatic alarm. It sends early alarm when the fire occurs and....


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