ANTINUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF Securidaca longepedunculata (VIOLET TREE)

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ABSTRACT


The antinutritional composition of leafs and stem bark s. longepedunculata were investigated using standard analytical methods. The leafs and stem bark of S. longepedunculata was air dried and the sample was pulverized for the determination of anti-nutritive contents. The antinutritional continents viz phytate, oxalate, nitrate and cyanide were determined in this investigation. Nitrate content was significantly (p<0 .001="" abundant="" and="" bark="" be="" both="" by="" cyanide="" followed="" found="" in="" leafs="" non-significant="" oxalate="" p="" phytate="" stem="" the="" to="" were="">0.05) in both the leafs and stem bark. In conclusion, the result of the present study shows that both the leafs and stem bark can be consumed without any restriction. However, consumption in large amount with higher level of these anti-nutrients should be avoided.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aims and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.1       Literature review
2.1.1    Distribution
2.1.2    Description
2.2       Ethnopharmacological Uses
2.3       Constituents
2.4       Antinutritional Factors
2.4.1    Phytate
2.4.2    Oxalate
2.4.3    Cyanide
2.4.4    Nitrate

CHAPTER THREE
3.1       Methodology & Procedure
3.2       Collection of Sample
3.2.1 Preparation of Sample
3.3 Antinutritional Factors Determination
3.3.1 Determination of Phytate
3.3.2 Determination of Oxalate
3.3.3 Determination of Cyanide
3.3.4 Determination of Nitrate

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Result

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
Reference
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE




1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Plants commonly synthesized a range of secondary metabolites as part of their protection against attack by herbivores, insects and pathogen or as a means to survive in adverse growing conditions. If farm or domestic animals or humans consume these plants, these compounds may cause adverse physiological effects. The terms anti nutritional or natural toxicant have been widely employed or describe plant defense metabolites in the food and nutrition literature. The observed biological effects very greatly, depending upon the structures of the individual compound, which can range from high molecular weight proteins to simple amino acids and oligosaccharides (Khokhar and Apenten, 2006).

Antinutritional factors are those substances found in most food substance which are poisonous to humans or in some ways limit the nutrient availability to the body. Plant evolved these substances to protect them and prevent them from being eaten. However, if the diet is not varied, some of this toxin builds up in the body to harmful levels (Norman and Petter 1987).
Anti-nutritional factors are present in different food substances in varying amounts, defending on kind of food, mode of its propagation, chemicals used in growing crop as well as these chemicals used in storage and preservation of the food substances. These anti-nutritional factors must be inactivated or removed if values of food substances are to be fully maintained (Inuwa et.al, 20011).

The plant Securidaca longepeduculata is native to Africa and commonly known as Rhodesia violet, violet tree and also as ezeogwu, ipeta and uwar magunguna (mother of drugs) in Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa language in Nigeria (Agbaje and Adekoya, 2012). The plant is a semi-deciduous shrub that grows up to 12m``` tall. It is sping and much branched with an open rather straggle looking crown (owoyele et al, 2006).

The genetic name comes from a Latin word secures meaning hatched. Repairing to the shape of the met with its curved membranous wing; and long pedunculata which refers to the long peduncle. The plant is very attractive to birds, butterflies and insects especially when in flowers. The leaves are available crowded on dwarf spur branch lets which are sometimes spine tipped. They have very fine hairs when young but they lae them as they mature. Flowers are sweetly, scented, in short bunches pink to purple and are produced in early summer. They are a lot 10mm long and are each borne on a long slender stalks (Peduncle) terminals and auxiliary sprays are a lot 30-50mm long appearing with long leaves.....


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