RENEWABLE ENERGY AS A SOLUTION TO NIGERIAN ENERGY CRISIS

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ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to investigate the potentials of renewable energy sources in Nigeria and how to support, promote and courage the growth of renewable energy resources in Nigeria to close the gap of 60-70% of Nigerians that did not have access to energy that is environmentally friendly.

Alternative energy sources are good and wonderful options because they are limitless. We will not run out of them as we may run out of the fossils fuels which are the major sources of energy in Nigeria. Also it is not only the declining levels of fossil fuels that is the only major concern that will make Nigeria to adapt and switch to the use of renewable energy sources. Climate change, which is cause as a result of carbon emissions and environmental pollution, is drawing world attention and forcing national governments to formulate policies that will make their nations adapt the use of renewable energy sources to cut environmental pollution to the bearest minimum because global warming has become a major issue and problem of the world today and in the future.

Two different research methods were used in the empirical part of the study. At first, the structured questionnaire survey was carried out. Moreover interviews were executed. The use of both research methods proved to be useful in exploring the energy situation in Nigeria and receiving reliable results. Based on the empirical results, the energy problems are clear.

The main conclusion of the research is potential of renewable energy resources in Nigeria are put at excess of 1.5 times that of fossil energy resources, in energy terms. Solar energy would be the best solution to the crisis followed by biomass and hydro which also have significant potentials to improve and make a difference on the low level of electricity in Nigeria, with emphasis on the rural areas, through the adoption and the use of these renewable energy resources for sustainable development.


1           INTRODUCTION

The first paragraphs of the thesis tell the background of the thesis, followed by research objectives, research problems, and research questions. Thereafter, are presented the limitation, definition of key words and disposition of the thesis.

1.1  Background

Nigeria is the most populous black nation in the world and despite its huge natural resources it is still one of the poorest countries in the world with an estimated GDP per capita of $ 2,162. For many years the country has been facing energy crisis that is hampering its economic development. Energy is one of the key fundamentals for economic development and also it is fundamental to all human activities in this era. There is an extreme electricity deficiency in Nigeria and the causes of this deficiency are related to financial, sociopolitical, and structural issues which leads the power sector in Nigeria to be recording high energy losses from power generation and billing which lead to insufficient cash generation as a result of these inefficiencies (A. Iwayemi 2008).

An estimated 60-70% of the Nigerian population does not have access to electricity. Energy demand in Nigeria is dominated by fuel wood and women and children are the most affected in the energy crisis. At present only 10 % of rural households and 30- 40% of the country’s total population has access to electricity (Sambo 2007). The energy sector in Nigeria totally rely on government subsidize fuel and funding of major energy plants and energy capital projects by the federal government, states and government agencies.

Nigeria is endowed with vast oil and gas reserves and also an abundance of renewable energy potentials. Yet the country is suffering an energy crisis, which has a major impact on its ability to reduce poverty and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).


Perhaps it is only individuals that are neither living nor doing business in Nigeria who will not know that lack of adequate energy supply especially electricity, is the major challenge the country is facing to fully utilize its economic potentials in other to achieve economic development. This is also the most significant factor which is affecting the country’s race to be one of the biggest and top twenty economies of the world by 2020. It is also evidently the issue how to find lasting and permanent solutions to the problems has remained a priority of every successive government in the last ten years.

The Nigerian government has not been able to find permanent solutions that will resolve the problems due to the adaptation of short term, hasty policies and also still undergoing energy projects which are detriment to long term energy policies that will help the nation to achieve sustainable energy and energy efficiency. For example, what the country have done is still usage of the various alternatives that are still within the limits of fossil fuels, which are the only source that currently powers the nation economy (J. Kennedy-darling, N. Hoyt, K. Murao, A. Ross, 2008).

1.2      Research Objectives

Access to energy is fundamental for socio-economic development and poverty alleviation. A huge development challenge in Nigeria is reaching out to the 60-70% of the Nigerian population that does not have access to electricity and modern energy services. Renewable energy technology is a promising solution to the energy crisis in Nigeria. Renewable energy, apart from being sustainable and inexhaustible, it can be set up in small units and is therefore suitable for community management and ownership (Uyigue, Agho, Edevbaro, 2007). Adopting the use of renewable energy sources will lead Nigeria to achieve stable energy supply and also achieve energy efficiency.

Alternative energy sources are good and wonderful options because they are limitless. We will not run out of them as we may run out of the fossils fuels which are the major sources of energy in Nigeria. Also it is not only the declining levels of fossil fuels that is the only major concern that will make Nigeria to adapt and switch to the use of renewable energy sources. Climate change, which is cause as a result of carbon emissions and environmental pollution, is drawing world attention and forcing...

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This is a General Thesis for both Undergraduate & Postgraduate Studies. The complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigerian or its equivalent in other currencies.


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