ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS DURING RUBBER PROCESSING IN GHANA; (CASE STUDY OF GHANA RUBBER ESTATE LIMITED)

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ABSTRACT

The main objective of this dissertation was to analysis, reduce and control the environ-mental problems occurs during rubber processes at Ghana Rubber Estate Limited. The work was carried out with both Qualitative and Quantitative Research. The problem of the thesis was a truly generic and unique problem. The processing and production of the company makes the problem generic and unique in the country. The problem had effects on the ecosystem and human as well.

The qualitative analysis of the thesis was done by interviews, discussion and observa-tions. The information gathered, justify the environmental condition of the district. The quantitative research based on data retrieved from the health centers and the question-naires distributed to know the general opinions of Ghana Rubber Estate Limited Workers and Ahanta West District. This dissertation outlined the toxic chemicals used in Natural Rubber Processing and the control of such chemicals.

The thesis analysis the environmental threats during rubber processing as follows; Water pollution- The activities of Coagulation and Equipment Maintenances Land Pollution- Through Rubber Tapping and Packaging Air Pollution- Diseases and Pest Control.


The Result of the work found out that the environment is polluted during an increase of rubber production in the area due to the suddenly decreased of air bone and respiratory diseases when the company production decreased.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
            1.1 Background
            1.2 Problems
            1.3 Aims and Objectives
            1.4 Literature Sources
            1.5 Limitations of the Studies
CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW
            2.1 Company Presentation (Ghana Rubber Estate Limited)
            2.2 Organizational Chart for GREL
            2.3 The Company Statistics

CHAPTER  THREE - General Concept of Rubber
            3.1 Origin
            3.2 Definition of Rubber
            3.3 Types of Rubber
            3.4 Plantation of Natural Rubber
            3.5 The Method of Planting Natural Rubber
            3.6 Natural Rubber Output (Yield)

CHAPTER FOUR - Natural Rubber Collection
            4.1 Hevea brasiliensis Tapping
            4.2 Methods of Tapping Natural Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis)
            4.3 Coagulation of Natural Rubber (NR)
            4.4 Preventing Coagulation
            4.5 Pathological Treatment of Natural Rubber
            4.6 The Resistance of Herbivore and Pest in Natural Rubber
            4.7 Cyanide Role in Natural Rubber Plantation
            4.8 The Effect of Cyanide Potential on Natural Rubber

CHAPTER FIVE - Natural Rubber Processing at GREL
            5.1 The Processing Technology
            5.2 The Natural Rubber Processing stages
            5.3 Plantation Phase
            5.4 Factory Phase
            5.5 The Machine Operations
            5.6 Packaging
            5.7 Transportation
CHAPTER FIVE  - The Properties and Applications of Natural Rubber
            6.1 Elastomeric property
            6.2 The Oxidation Property
            6.3 The Elasticity property
            6.4 Thermal Property
            6.5 The Natural Rubber Applications
            6.5 Statistical Summary of World Natural Rubber
            6.6 Natural Rubber Production Quantities for Top Ten Countries
            6.7 The Last twenty countries of Natural rubber production

CHAPTER SEVEN - Synthetic Rubbe
            7.1 General Concept of Synthetic Rubber
            7.2 Styrene -Butadiene Rubbers Composition and Properties
            7.3 Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR)
            7.4 Polybutadiene
            7.5 Differences between Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber
            7.6 Natural Rubber and Synthetic Rubber Similarities

CHAPTER EIGHT – The Impact of Rubber Processing and Production on the Environment
            8.1 Rubber Industrial and the Environment
            8.2 The Environmental threats from rubber processing in Ghana
            8.2.1 The Effect of Social Economic life and Non Sustainable of Natural Resource
            8.2.2 The Chemicals used on the ecological system
            8.2.3 Non Biodiversity Promotion
            8.2.4 The Greenhouse Gas Emission
            8.2.5 Mishandling of Raw Material and Solid waste
            8.2.6. Noise and other Pollution
CHAPTER NINE - Method and Material
            9.1 Research Methodology
            9.2 Data Collection
            9.2.1 Statistics on the questionnaire
            9.2.2 The statistics on plastics cup and the coconut shell opinions
            9.2.3 Data on the interview and responds
            9.2.4 The Use of Health Information
            9.3 Reliability and Validity

CHAPTER TEN - EMPERICAL STUDIES
            10. 1 The presentation of survey result and analysis
            10.1.1  Age grouping
            10.1.2  Area of Residence
            10.1.3  Gender Distribution
            10.1.4 Occupational Sectors
            10.1.5. Water and Air Quality Satisfaction
            10.1.6 Drinking Water Source
            10.1.7 Causes of Pollution
            10.1.8 Polluting Companies
            10.1.9 Society Protection on Environment
            10.1.10 The affected ways of Pollution

CHAPTER ELEVEN - Analysis the Opinion on the Plastic and Coconut shell Device data
            11.1. The Opinion Interpretation and Presentation
            11.2. The Health Information
            11.3 Interview and Discussion Information Analysis

CHAPTER TWELVE
            12.1 The Result
            12.2 Discussion

CHAPTER THIRTEEN – Conclusion

CHAPTER FOURTEEN - References
Appendix


1   CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
In this millennium the use of rubber has become versatile and it has been increase in volume sales in the Engineering firms either the manufacturing or production sectors as well as Business industries. This has result in expansion and increase in numbers of Plastics and Rubber manufacturing companies and factories in World. The idea of Plas-tics or Rubber invention is moving at faster rate than metallurgy and paper Technology and it is gradually diminishing usage of metallic product and also serving as a substitute and alternatives as the use of paper products. The availability of rubber raw material is rating good as compare that of metals. These factors are encouraging individuals or people to patronize in rubber production activities.

There are about six varieties of natural rubber. The species depends on the ecological factors of the area for growth. The varieties are as follows:

·         Para Rubber Tree

·         Gutta Percha

·         Rubber fig

·         Panama Rubber Tree

·         Common Dandelion

·         Hevea brasiliensis




The Hevea brasiliensis is a type of rubber tree produced for commercial purposes and well known in the Natural Rubber Industry.

The natural rubber tree, which is scientifically called Hevea brasiliensis, cannot pro-duce any finite engineering material without undergoing processing. The processing of the rubber will passes through some production phases and stages. The Production pro-cesses will have impact on the environment.


It was mentioned that currently the usage of rubber products are widely increasing therefore the environments will definitely be affected by processing and manufacturing.

The environment impacts during rubber processing can have positive or negative effects on the society or the environment. The environment is a boundary or kingdom in which all living organism and non-living organism perfumes its functions. Therefore each and every one must be concern about the environment. This consent has been the reasonable or the ultimate goals for organizations, associations, government bodies and Individuals willing to denote or spend a huge sum of monies or funds on environmental protection awareness .In a way of organizing conferences, seminars, exhibitions and meeting up to pass environmental policies and laws.

The United National Environmental Assembly, which was formerly called United Na-tion Environmental Program (UNEP), is campaigning especially in Africa continent and educating the people in a way individual can be equipped with ongoing environmental challenges which the world is battling or facing.

The United Nation Environmental Assembly are extending their resources and dealing with Africa environmental issues more vigorously in a way the rapid change of climate at the continent will be reduced. In this way the United Nation Environmental Assembly is aiming to achieve the goal of the world been environmental friendly. Moreover the environment need to be protected to ensure good sustainability of green economy .That is why the UNEP has decided to choose 5th of June as Environmental Day and also called the Earth day.

In other way, I am well pleased about their effort and the good work the Organization is doing and this has facilitate me to extends my knowledge which I have achieved through the studying of Plastics technology Program to help my community ( Agona – Ahanta District) in Ghana which their suffering from environmental exchanges caused by Ghana Rubber Estate limited during Rubber Processing and also I thought of choos-ing that topic as my degree dissertation because with much research and analysis I hope it will be beneficial to folks of the districts ,the company and the entire nation as a whole.


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